THE INFLUENCE OF PHENOMENOLOGY ON NURSING RESEARCH
1. In-depth examination
Phenomenology is conducive to discovery of information and development essential nursing knowledge to the profession due to nursing involvement in the examination of phenomena within the contextual healthcare framework. The phenomenological approach has increasingly become a method for nursing research studies as it comprises data collection tools like open-ended questions, observational cues that are appropriate for nursing research practices as well and methodologies. Phenomenology is also extremely useful to qualitative nurse researchers because it has the potential to be an efficient vehicle for illumination and clarification of fundamental issues in the healthcare sector.
The science of nursing deals with holistic treatment. Many nurses recognize the significance of experiences by individuals and support them to control their health and well-being. Phenomenology, as based on this understanding, plays a pivotal role in the nursing profession since it values the experience of individuals, principles, and modalities of the holistic healing into their daily life and clinical practice.
2. Individualized approach
Nurses usually relate to the phenomenological approach because it values an individual experience and they may have some of the necessary skills such as interviewing. A limitation is that the interviewing skills they have might not suit this method.
The target of phenomenological research is to develop an accurate description of a person’s life experience about the subject of study. Analysis can reveal the experience by asking questions such as “how does it feel after diagnosis with a terminal illness or experience after treatment and discharge. Researchers who use phenomenology in nursing collect data for analysis primarily through interviews, stories or observations of research participants who have gone through an experience of the issue under study.
Transcribing the interviews and analyzing data from several people are also part of this process. Some approaches can help with the interpretation of data with the aim of identifying the meaningful information and classifying them into themes after an analysis of all sets. The themes are common issues between various participants.
3. Values experience
Phenomenology draws an increasing number of researchers because it considers a whole person and values experience like the nursing practice. Nursing focuses on sensitivity and sympathy for the people by recognizing the validity of their experiences and supporting their control over health. Nurses trained to listen, empathize and create a rapport. These are valuable skills in phenomenology, and those with a nursing background might feel sufficient to conduct the appropriate interview in this kind of research.
Phenomenological research takes one of these two approaches:
Descriptive phenomenology: descriptive approach uses bracketing approach by putting aside things that a researcher knows about experience under investigation and approaches data without misconceptions to maintain objectivity. Researchers using descriptive phenomenology should discuss the criteria of bracketing preconception to ensure neutrality. It might even include conducting a literature review.
Interpretative phenomenology: interpretative phenomenology states that it is impossible to rid the mind of preconceptions and approaches something with neutrality. It relies on the interpretation of personal experiences to interpret those by other people or use it to develop research questions. They may need to show how their experiences shape the choice of a research topic, questions, and interpretations. They might even write an appendix down about the things they expect to uncover.
4.Challenge of phenomenology on nursing research
Phenomenology today is in wide use because it broadens understanding of the human phenomena that are relevant to nursing practice. However, nurse researchers do not adhere to acceptable phenomenological standards. The bulk of these challenges are that researchers should indicate the focus of their investigations, designs, and approach to data collection and analysis. The expectation is that they should present the findings in an expressive and evocative manner.