Health, Education, Medicine, Human Resource Management, Nursing, Community, Study, Information
The survey targets healthcare workers in hospitals across the nation. They will voluntarily submit to the survey in order to expose their most recent knowledge concerning the nursing shortage. They have been allowed to volunteer at chance as no selected times were chosen for the survey. The respondents targeted could be from any category of the general healthcare community and as noted above will share one more characteristics that are shared and is relative to the nursing community and related by the claim of knowledge concerning the nursing community.
In the spirit of the quantitative simple designed research method, the investigation of the knowledge level about the nursing shortage should bear similar characteristics or traits. This helps to meet the characteristics of the simple survey design and the quantitative method. The simple survey will also attempt to provide some rationales as to how the Nursing Shortage crisis can be altered by linking and charting the perceptions of the general healthcare populations. It will also show that the closer that the respondents are to the nursing community executive hierarchy, the more their perceptions will take shape in the graphical charting.
Their results should be demonstrative and near the peak of the curve and above the mean, mode or the median in the statistical analysis portion of the study. Because the survey is more quantitative than qualitative, the results will define clear borders of the patterns. Whereas; the qualitative design approach will bear results which are far less clear and bear very little predictability.
The single group selected in the study will also have an interest in the results of the study. This presents the beginnings of the target audience and the population. Additional beneficiaries of the survey may include many populations across the country and who have discovered that the deficits in the nursing community have somehow made their way to their locations as well. This is where the study can educate and begin the dialogue needed that enough has not been done. In doing so, the study will increase its’ jurisdiction in relation to the time after the publication date.
In the essence of the required characteristics of the simple survey, the participants may be students, university admissions or office staff and nursing school administrators. Other stakeholders include collaborating hospital staff, hospital administration and practicing nurses. Others who are crucial to the study are practicing doctors and professors involved in teaching of nursing courses. Respondents will be adults, but also may include males or females within the community or some way may be involved directly in nursing discipline. Results could also be used to investigate further research in this area.
The paper has adopted Quantitative Design methodology which has an embedded simple descriptive survey design that focuses on the nursing community and those who have had experiences with the education of the profession. In the survey, we will focus on a population of participants that will be linked by simple and random characteristics. It is important to include any and all categories of participants so that inclusions of the results are pertinent in as many ways as possible. In doing so, the results can be categorized in ways that provide similar information for those that contribute to information which may be used to begin how communities can help to offset the crisis of the nursing shortage.
Furthermore, a critical evaluation of secondary literature on nursing shortage is in need to be stimulated. Some of which have been identified by way of official professional reports, peer reviewed journals, books and bibliographic databases. Crucial concepts include the acute and growing nursing shortage, nursing migration, and international nursing. An in-depth interview primary data collection method shall be used to gather information from key respondents as clinical leaders and stakeholders.
Data Collection Methods
The research instruments are very important parts of data collection and have many crucial components. In this case, a survey tool has been designed, that is an instrument that will help to identify the knowledge base about a well-published problem governing the nursing shortage. A selection criterion is embedded in the survey to differentiate and select a target population that can help to expose how the nursing shortage has affected communities across the nation. Inclusive in the survey are questions that will help to survey and identify how the shortage has affected populations as well as identifying those communities that have already selected and taken actions to aid their communities in resolving the shortage.
The survey is geared to those that most closely work near or within the survey and attempts to allow nursing students input into the data. The researcher used the assistance and information of The Joint Commission website in order to begin the selection process for the participant or target hospitals and healthcare professionals. It also intends to gain participation from hospitals that are in the process of seeking accreditation by allowing hospitals that are in the application phase of certification with The Joint Commission to participate as well. The rationale behind this allowance knows that practitioners that are seeking either will be familiar or have seen processes to stall the crisis of the shortage.
After identifying hospitals across the nation and formulation of the plan to select the hospitals and clinics, the data collection process continued by contacting the identified hospitals in order to attempt to find a point person for as many facilities as possible. This technique was important in order to gain maximum numbers of practitioners for the sample to minimize deviations induced by the researcher and also knowing that peer influence of those affected were needed to be well represented and to reach the number of participants sought.
This agenda was only used when phone calls and emails did not work. Additionally, non-respondents and those communities that understand implications of the nursing crisis are often more apt to realize the importance of the research when they are approached from a peer or colleague.
After soliciting and collecting information from the brief survey, the target audience and participants were sent a link from the survey tool Survey Monkey. This tool was selected because of its ability to allow creations that were attractive and easy for most participants to use. It also allows other important features of data collection such as ease of use and ease of accessibility. The link that was sent to the participants or target audience was embedded in the contact emails for the audience selected.
Data collection employment is a crucial part of the process of quantitative research. The simple survey and methods of data collection were crucial in providing the vital information solicited and if done correctly would allow the researcher to add to the many manuals or manuscripts concerning the nursing shortage. It also allowed other variations of knowledge from different communities to become a part of the knowledge base of how important the eradication of the nursing shortage is and how communities are attempting to resolve the crisis.
The research sought from the simple survey was solicited in order to get a sample population that well represents the impressions, attitudes, perceptions and affect that the nursing shortage places on communities and the practitioners of nursing and its support.
One hundred participants were selected in order to provide data about a group of healthcare personnel that are affected daily by the nursing shortage. The research will solicit information about the group and its characteristics and demographic understanding about the nursing shortage. We will collect the data by brief surveys, definitive surveys and collect the data by talking directly to hospital staff that allows the researcher to weed through appropriate participants.
The purpose of the survey was to learn more about how different practitioners and hospitals are handling the crisis. Descriptions and characteristics of the practitioners should at this point from the survey. Suggestions about how communities and respondents are utilizing the information in solving their dilemmas, and conducting nursing education should evolve from the information returned.
Data Collection Instrument
The research survey used to collect quantitative data in this study was an on-line mixed-methods simple survey. Gay, Mills, & Airasian (2008), suggest that the survey “should be attractive, brief and easy to respond to,” therefore, the researcher constructed a brief questionnaire which allows the research to contribute information from a variety of personnel surrounding nursing, but also the research will also allow contributions to also from those that are indirectly influenced by the crisis. This feature should help to make sure that this quantitative descriptive study meets it goals by identifying characteristics of these particular group of people who share common attributes that are descriptive and explanatory. Another feature of the survey intends to examine characteristics of the respondents by examining the extent of involvement with the community of nursing. This helps to add to the knowledge base from different levels surrounding nursing practitioners and their support personnel. Five levels of involvement were embedded in the survey in order to group and characterize the data from the selected respondents and to better examine the awareness level of each of the five groups and the impact of the crisis of each level.
The survey will contribute information from the highest level around the nursing hierarchy to the lowest level of involvement by inclusion of nursing students and personnel up to the executive level of nursing support and administration, This was done by asking specific structured questions which only allowed the respondents to select from the five levels of the survey. An additional protection embedded is a category of questions has in its scale a category of none that is double-blind eradicator and respondents who made the initial cut will be eradicated by this embedded answer. This question by itself offers extra protection to limit responses only from those that worked or had knowledge of the impact of the nursing shortage in their community and workplace. .
Lastly, the instrument contains rating scales. The data from the scales will help to isolate and develop conclusions from the variables offered. During the analysis portion of the data interpretation, it will help to shape the information and offer characteristics or mounds of data about the perception of the nursing shortage from the selected respondents. The instrument will also help to shape the data from the participants that either add to or expand upon the publications already captured concerning the nursing shortage in both subjective and objective terms. It is also the data that is used form the rating scales that will allow the researcher to carefully select his study sample and ensure that only those that are intended to be included are included.
Identifying the Data Collected
The data collected will help to form the characteristics from healthcare workers governing the nursing shortage crisis. Raw data from the population included in the survey will expand to the database of the collected publications but will also suggest further conclusions. The conclusions from the data collected may also suggest areas that have begun to remediate their concerns governing the shortage.
Additionally, peaks, modes, medians, and means may be formed from the data that can point to conclusions about the status in some of the nation’s communities that are indirectly or directly involved in nursing care. The researcher used raw data collected through the survey to calculate and form many features of the data. Characteristics and descriptors such as frequency, percentages, mean, mode and medians are just a few of the type of statistics that the data will reveal.
The data collected will have a cut-off date of July 15, 2013 and the data collection phase of research will be done. This was done in order to begin the next portion of the research that is data analysis. At the conclusion of the data collection phase, data analysis will point out conclusions and patterns of awareness at this point from the sample that made the cut off. Triangulations, peaks, and other patterns of statistical similarities will be revealed and groups that are aware in different communities will show similar trends of those that are doing similar interventions.
It is this phase that the researcher must prove and look for analogies which implicate trends, questions, weaknesses and strengths. Conclusions from the trends and other patterns generated by the data; can and will help to draw conclusions about the data and its respondents’ awareness and intervention levels governing the nursing shortage.
The procedure for the study began with selection of the topic of interest or inquiry that is personal in some way to the researcher. The literature was selected during the review phase. From here, goals and questions were developed. Questions and Hypothesis were parts of the initial portion of the research and helped to conclude the proposal phase. Permissions and authorizations were obtained from both the Institutional Review Board, (IRB) and participant communities. A community and respondent selection vehicle was chosen. The Joint Commission was selected as the vehicle for identification of the respondent database.
Limitations to avoid researcher flaws were well rehearsed and planned to avoid potential researcher evoked bias. This control helped in selecting lists or respondent communities around the United States provided by a professional organization. When the researcher called each hospital and if it was determined that they utilized nurses (only these hospitals will be surveyed-others excluded). I then identified the clinical partner who meets the criteria as outlined above. In the middle of the research, both the brief and the online were electronically mailed.
The survey tool selected was well known for its efficiency. The researcher provided and developed rapport with the clinical partners by providing a follow-up protocol, consisting of a follow-up email or occasional phone call to the clinic managers after one week, to help facilitate participation. This process continued until the researcher received answers from at least 100 respondents. This part of the analysis calculated some clustered data manually, in accordance with study needs.
The researcher then examined the analyzed data looking for answer to the research questions, trends, strengths and weaknesses, drawing conclusions and comparing the results of this study with the recommendations set forth by relevant professional organizations. The researcher then used the results to make objective observations, recommend appropriate nursing education and competency programs, and suggest areas in need of further clinical study.
The data analysis technique adapted in this research project emerges from a quantitative research design. This type of design is applied in scientific models where theories are generated and hypotheses must be tested. Instruments must be developed as was done previously in the early sections of this proposal. The specific instrument is a questionnaire with items. There must also be a method of measurement. In this case it is application of ANOVA. Some quantitative models encompass experimental control and manipulation of variables. The variables contained in this research are amplified in 19 research questions tendered to be answered (Belle, Gerald, 2008)
However, there will be no experimental control in this study since it is a survey, but collection will embrace retrieval of empirical data. Eventually, a data processing and analysis model will be adapted consistent with a quantitative design.
Techniques for analyzing data
(ANOVA) will be employed as the data analysis technique model. Usually, ANOVA is used in the analysis of comparative experiments especially, when the researcher predicts different outcomes in the hypothesis. However, the technique would be applied here to analyze data retrieved from a survey. Also, ‘the statistical significance of an experiment is determined by a ratio of two variances. This ratio is independent of several possible alterations to the experimental observations: Adding a constant to all observations does not alter significance. Multiplying all observations by a constant does not alter significance. So ANOVA statistical significance results are independent of constant bias and scaling errors as well as the units used in expressing observations’ (Boanas & and Renton, 2000).
The difference in application of ANOVA to this research is applying its logic whereby calculations can be demonstrated as computing a number of means and variances, by dividing two variances and comparing the ratio to a handbook value in determining statistical significance. The variances will emerge from questionnaire responses after data analysis software is applied to facilitate classification, differentiation and assembling of data (Boanas & and Renton, 2000).
Software, which is recommended for analyzing questionnaire responses in this project, is Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS).This software is reliable and very popular among quantitative researchers. Even though, it is extremely powerful the software is very easy to manipulate. Programs are files designed with a help menu to guide students into coding questionnaire responses in preparation for calculation of means, standard deviation and variances, chi-square; t-tests and a variety of other statistical applications including ANOVA. Designing of graphs as well as data charting is facilitated on this software program too (Boanas & and Renton, 2000).
Rationale for Analysis chosen
The objective of this research paper is to elucidate the causes of the nursing shortage in the healthcare sector. The data will be organized into three different platforms. Questionnaires and interviews will be used in seeking responses from participants. For these reasons, the chosen data analysis procedure (ANOVA) will be essential in showcasing the level of differences in the variables under study.
After application of the SPSS software to the initial data analysis process ANOVA adaptations will be applied because analysis of variance occurring in the hypothesis and 19 research questions must be clarified. These clarifications can be achieved only through ANOVA in this specific case when the research seeks to describe as phenomenon such as nursing shortage among a population of nurses.
An important advantage of ANOVA is its computational ability in software programs such as SPSS. Essentially, its structural additive model facilitates solution of additive coefficients through simple algebra rather than by matrix calculations. Twenty-first century mechanical calculators welcome this simplicity. Also, statistical significance determination requires access to F function tables, which are all found in software programs (Boanas & and Renton, 2000).
Interpretation of Analysis Results
The analysis results will be interpreted though graphically display and explanation of descriptive statistics. The hypothesis will be tested for its significance. Depending on the statistical results it will be proven valid or invalid. This can only be interpreted based on the findings of ANOVA calculations. Research questions will also be tendered for variance level identifications. Variances occurring in each question will be compared for an overall interpretation of results based on the statistical test results. These results will, predict the causes of nursing shortages as it pertains to responses retrieved from this survey.
The most critical aspect will be to showcase the causes of nursing shortage from the most to the least influential. This will be
Two key resources:
– Olson, K. (2001). Nursing Shortages: A Growing Concern. Almanac of Policy Issues, 11. Almanac of Policy Issues.
– Sobon-Sensor, C. (2012). Nursing Shortage. STTI Home Page. Version 12. The Honor Society of Nursing.
The Scope of the Study
The student population pursuing or interested in nursing course will be targeted touching on relevant causes of the nursing shortage that should be addressed. This will include the relevance of the nursing training curriculum, methodologies that the trainers use in training the nurses, retention efforts for the registered nurses, staffing models that hospitals and employment authority’s use, and increasing the revenue that governments allocate to the relevant ministries associated with nursing. The survey shall be conducted within the university environment.
Research has indicated that the major causes of the nursing shortages accrue mostly from human errors in various decision-making aspects. The decisions that people make concerning the field of nursing lead to shortfalls of various degrees in the field. Here are some of the recommendations that will help different authorities and relevant stakeholders in determining on how to deal with the issue.
First, it is imperative to increase the quality of reimbursement in the health division in order to promote the worth of nurses. This would lure individuals to train as professional nurses, and it will make the field as lucrative as other fields of career (Cohen & Sherrod, 2003).
Secondly, it is necessary to improve and increase recruitment of nurses. This will help to subsidize the high ratio of nurse to patient. Recruitment of nurses will help to pull down the rates of shortages. Retention is also an aspect that should be considered at all costs. There should be strategies that will ensure that registered nurses do not leave the profession for other lucrative professions. Various strategies can help in achieving this point, like remuneration, and reviewing the nursing working conditions, among others.
Further, there are radical reforms that need to be evaluated within the next few years in order to improve the situation in the nursing field. The reforms regard intervention in the policies regarding healthcare provision. Some of the reforms are macroeconomic and healthcare sector financing, positive practice environment, and recruitment and retention of healthcare workers and nurses (Feldman, 2003). The focus on recruitment and retention strategies may concentrate on retaining nurses who are likely to retire at an average age of 44.5 years by 2010. This will ameliorate the projected shortage about 260,000 nurses by 2025 (Buerhaus, Auerbach & Staiger, 2009). In most cases, effort to retain nurses will ease on cost of turnover and increase better and quality.
All countries around the world have to strive to attain self-sufficiency in terms of the healthcare workforce without creating adverse effects in other countries. For instance, over the past few years, Philippine has been producing many nurses, a situation that has led to many of them migrating to the United States of America. Self-sufficiency regards to the ability of a country, or a state, to supply the number of required healthcare providers at a given time, and the ability to retain and sustain the providers conveniently (Sobon-Sensor, 2012). Many countries have failed to retain such a status, and have ended up on either side of importing or exporting nurses.
Federal legislation has provided funding to all manner of nursing profession. The U.S congress in 2009 passed Nurse Education Expansion and Development act (NEED). At policy level, the American Association of Colleges has taken upon itself to address the root cause of nursing shortage by giving college resources to impart more skills to new nurses (AACC, 2009). According to the Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals survey, potential solutions to the nursing problem lay with increased staffing (43%); less administrative roles performed by nurses (34%); high wages (27%); more involvement and engagement in decision making (14%); more flexibility (8%); limits of floating (8%) and better hours schedule; other job progression issues were refresher courses (56%); more staff support (55%); listening bodies like unions, performance based salary and work place childcare (44%) (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001). The inter-departmental health council offers a suggestion that degree holders should provide nursing care in complicated clinical situations. They argue that there should be a team of captains performing think tank functions for planning and directing or giving personal or group care to individuals.
Higher learning institutions like colleges and universities should reduce age and nursing training college period to rejuvenate nursing recruitment. This will allow a reservoir of potential nurses interested in simple care of the sick to perform nursing practice. The government should provide enough subsidies for training of nurses. Expand training institutions to allow other institutions like technical institutes, junior and community colleges. Another option would be making training in nursing mandatory. The nursing profession continues to face an ever-growing challenge in the global village across the world. While the challenges are acute in the U.S, the same scenario is replicated in Europe and developing countries (Nursing, 2010).
Andrist, Patrice and Wolf (2006) jointly indicate that nursing shortages vary depending on each country’s characteristics of its care needs. However, the shortage is ultimately universal and same in all nations of the world. This is because as one can see from the above discussion, the causes and possible interventions are identical. It is possible for the United Nations to intervene and pass professional guidelines that will influence the field hence bring in changes that will ensure resuscitation of the nursing profession. There is the need for incentives in the field in order to entice the young generations to get into the field. This will ensure the security of the work force in the future of the nursing field. Each country of the world understands the consequences of understaffed nursing field, and should stress on maintaining workers and strife to retain those already in the field.
How the Key Words were used
In order to get the best results, the key words were modified in various ways. For instance, to understand the nursing field, the tern nursing had to be keyed as the search tool as Nursing in America. This provided the overall situation in the nursing industry. Secondly, international nursing provided the overall comparison of nursing worldwide. Nursing training and curriculum provided the review in the nursing syllabus and the shortfalls that face the process and setting. Hospital staffing was used to provide the criteria and situational analysis of hospitals in America. Professional alternatives were used to review reasons why registered nurses prefer getting to other fields despite being qualified as nurses