Example Of Nursing Concept Comparison And Analysis Across Theories Research Paper
Selection of a core concept
Comparative analysis discussion
Choosing one theory and discuss where and how it may be best applied to nursing practice.
Concept comparison and analysis across theories embraces the assumption that concepts are the building blocks of theories since they highlight the conception of how scientists view a particular phenomenon. In the same way perceptions vary, definitely concept definitions and interpretations are diverse across disciplines and cultures. As such, in the following pages of this document the writer will explore these differences to detect the significance of their theoretical framework.
Nursing: Concept comparison and analysis across theories research paper
Concept formulation and theory construction has now pervaded nursing science for more than a century. As improvements in practice are discerned, noticeably new strategies towards the emergence of nursing concepts and designing of theories become evident. The extent to which this rapid development is occurring forges recognition for nursing service; education as well as administration be involved in this revolution taking place within the discipline.
Hence, the importance of concept comparison and analysis across theories cannot be over emphasized. It must be understood, however, that concepts are not constant scientific material. In the same way the earth rotates around the sun for three hundred and sixty five days every year and three hundred and sixty six every leap year, as such is the dynamism of concept adaptation within various sciences and the disciplines defining them.
The reality is that when concepts are examined across disciplines there is a vast difference in interpretation as well as application. Theories which follow tend to either wind up being irrelevant for one discipline or barely applicable towards another. Therefore, in twenty first century nursing practice it makes sense to stop and conduct a scientific investigation comparing various concepts and analyzing their significance across theoretical perspective.
A core concept which has run across theories ever since emergence of the science and will remain contemporary is nursing science. It is important to recognize that nursing has emerged from a philosophy from the Florence Nightingale’s era and beyond into a recognized controversial theoretical concept worthy of scrutiny.
Dorothea Elizabeth Orem’s (2007) account of nursing examining ‘Self Care deficit Nursing Theory,’ inevitably integrates this concept in explaining that nursing is the core concept within this theoretical perspective. Julia George’s (2011) ‘Nursing Theory and Clinical Practice’ is evidence that the concept nursing cannot be avoided in relating this theoretical paradigm. Janet Hickman (2011) also, testifies that nursing is a core concept to be addressed in theoretical assumptions because indeed it is the thread which links all theoretical thoughts within the science. Many other schools of thought pervade the science with some unconventional concepts of nursing.
As such, in selecting this core concept for comparative analysis an eclectic approach will be taken since two or more paradigms will be examined in relating how even within the science there could be similarities and contradictions of interpretations depending on the era and context within which the word was used.
Comparative analysis discussion
In nursing as well as any other science the concept statement preceding the incubation of any thought which will eventually hatch out as a concept is perceived as applying distinct characteristics for construction, since concepts are the foundation underlying theories formation. Precisely, a conglomeration of concepts makes up what is known as theories within any discipline which operates from a scientific paradigm.
As such, Loraine Olszewski (2011) argues that a concept is a mental image based on cultural orientation of what a phenomenon appears to be within the mind of that individual conceiving it. Further, she clarified that this is not the concept since work has to be done in mind to produce a statement equivalent to that which was conceived (Olszewski 2011)
The main benefit of imaging when concept formulation is embarked upon is that it helps the scientist to categorize and organize the stimulus received. Later, the individual can identify how the experience coincides with the environment; being similar or different. At this point a statement could be issued derived from these revelations (Olszewski 2011).
Sequentially, levels of abstractness are integrated into the process. They evolve as primitive, concrete and abstract concepts. Concept statements emerge after this critical thinking process is complete. Consequently, pertaining to nursing emanating from this process, statement declarations arrived at include; ‘nursing as a specific type of human service is based on values. In most communities people see nursing as desirable and necessary.’ (Orem, 2011).This pertains to Orem’s (2011) Self Care Deficit theory.
Julia George’s (2011) Nursing Theory and Clinical Practice quoting Virginia Henderson (1996) conceptualizes that “Nursing is doing for others what they lack the strength and will or knowledge to do for themselves.. (Henderson, 2011). Janet Hickman’s (2011) An Introduction to Nursing theory posits that ‘as new knowledge and discoveries emerge the cutting edge of the art and science of the discipline of nursing evolves’ (Janet Hickman, 2011).
There are four Metaparadigms which inform concept construction in nursing. These pertain to the person, environment, health and nursing. As it relates to person the individual recipient of care forms the basis of this concept construction. In reference to environment the external and internal segments of life that influence the recipient of care as well as the one delivering such intervention is taken into consideration. Health is usually perceived from a holistic paradigm related to wholeness in body soul and spirit. Nursing directly relates to the role of the nurse in rendering care (Thorne et al, 2008).
Evidently, the core concept linking theoretical assumptions in the foregoing literature is nursing, whether it is pertains to the self care deficit theory, nursing theory regarding clinical practice or simply an introduction to nursing theory in itself. To compare conceptual framework embarked upon by these theorist apart for exploring Metaparadigms, inevitable an inference must be drawn to Evelyn Wills and Melanie McEwen ( 2012) ‘Concept development: Clarifying meaning of terms;’ to empathize that in this science the same way concepts vary in interpretation during construction, similarly the applications are diverse when transferred into nursing practice. Therefore, the advice is to start by ‘defining the phenomenon or concept for further study’ (Wills and McEwen, 2012).
Herein lays the character of a concept if there is no scope for reconstruction it is futile. Hence, to examine the diverse perceptions of nursing advanced by the theorists cited; is to highlight that the concept impinges on the model depicted in the four paradigms mentioned in the first paragraph of this section. ‘Nursing as a specific type of human service is based on values. In most communities people see nursing as desirable and necessary.’ (Orem, 2011) is closely related to patient profile metaparadigm.
‘Nursing is doing for others what they lack the strength and will or knowledge to do for themselves.. (Henderson, 1996). This concept while relating the patient metaparadigm seems limited in scope when compared to the previous concept since Orem(2011) went on to clarify nursing to be based on values. This clarifying /qualifying value concept implies also an environmental paradigm, since it has to do with both the patient and nurses interpretation of the surroundings.
“As new knowledge and discoveries emerge the cutting edge of the art and science of the discipline of nursing evolves’ (Janet Hickman, 2011). Cutting edge of the art appears to be the clarifying/ qualifying health and nursing metaparadigm incumbent in this concept. The theorist speaks of knowledge, discoveries and nursing evolution. This is distinct from the patient emphasis typology of Orem (2011) and Henderson (1996).
The philosophy of concept comparison often is linked to the question of how concepts can be related to theories (Risjord, 2008). More importantly, in this section of the discourse the writer wishes to clarify the relationship of the concepts on nursing as espoused by these distinguished theorists cited, to unravel their contemporary philosophical significance to the science.
Within the science there are personal philosophies, interdisciplinary philosophies and organizational philosophies informing concept construction overtime. As such, with reference to the philosophy advanced by Evelyn Wills and Melanie McEwen ( 2012) there must be scope for ‘defining the phenomenon or concept for further studies’( Wills & McEwen, 2012).
Arguments have been that concept formation within the science lacks the presumption of further studies since they are theory- formed rather than theory forming (Risjord, 2008). Precisely, they derive their content from the prevailing context. Therefore, to examine the contextual content of the three nursing concepts being compared is to concluded that each one was designed with their context of knowing of the theorist formulating them.
As such, a personal philosophy is advanced by Orem (2011) and George’s (2011) perception. Hickman (2011) projects an organizational philosophy denoting extension of knowledge and making discoveries. In this sense it can be devised that underlying this philosophy is scope for ‘defining the phenomenon or concept for further studies’ (Wills & McEwen, 2012) thereby making way for theory formation rather conclusive theory formed typology.
As was mentioned earlier contextual models emerge from the philosophy through which concepts are formed. Risjord (2008) posits that contemporary contextual model pivot upon the assumption of two ideas. First conceptualism related to theory formed and building blocks, theory forming.
In distinguishing the typology among nursing conceptions under evaluation in this concept comparison discourse, it is clear that even though Hickman’s (2011) projections, can be classified more into the building block model there are elements of Orem (2011) and George’s concept that merit some degree of building block assessment.
‘In most communities people see nursing as desirable and necessary’ (Orem, 2011) leaves room for further study and shows that at this point it operates as a building block. Likewise, ‘what they lack the strength” (George, 2011) even though is just a small phase implies that at sometime a shift in paradigm will occur and a new concept will have to be designed. Profoundly, ‘new knowledge and discoveries emerge’ (Hickman, 2011) leaves wide scope for further studies and building block conceptualization.
Choosing one theory and discuss where and how it may be best applied to nursing practice.
Self Care deficit Nursing Theory by Dorothea Orem (201)
The theoretical assumptions espoused by this theory states that nursing as a specific type of human service is based on values. In most communities people see nursing as desirable and necessary’ (Orem, 2011). This embodies the metaparadigm that the provision of self care is nursing care. As such, there is a deficit of this type of care within society and scope of nursing.
In terms of where the theory is to be applied, it could be a community health care contextual model formulation. Therefore, its adaptations are applicable to community health nursing encapsulating health as a holistic intervention for clients and nurses as well, since it embraces the concept of health promotion rather curative medicine. To answer how the model can be utilized in nursing practice is to advance that health education programs involving adolescents, young adults and the elderly be designed to teach self care and reduce this deficit in nursing process.
The foregoing discourse embraced a series of concepts pertaining to nursing and how they differ based on the contextual framework designing them. Metaparadigms were explored to devise where these concepts integrate within this net work. Contextual models informing their emergence were also evaluated and a suggested application of self care deficit nursing theory was offered.