Essay On Nursing Theory
A nursing theory can be considered to be a group or set ideas, concepts or notions that are interrelated to create systematic approach towards a particular incident, fact or phenomenon in nursing (Tomey & Alligood, 2002). The application of these ideas or concepts should have a predictive outcome as the end result. Subsequently, in nursing, various outcomes are based on the application of various ideas, concepts and notions towards that outcome. For instance, the recovery process and speed of a patient can be attributed or linked to the applied treatment, environmental conditions under which the patient is placed as well as the psychological and moral support given to that patient. A theory is made up of various elements and concepts which makes the applicability of that theory viable and considerably essential. Some of these elements are models, definition and concepts applied in the nursing sector (George, 2002).
Importance of nursing theories
In the health sector, nursing forms a key concept in the recovery and well being of the patient. Consequently, various nursing theories have been formulated to enhance the nursing practice as well as predicting the outcome to the nursing practice. Nursing theories are essential in planning for the resources available during the nursing period of the client (Tomey & Alligood, 2002). For instance, they help nurses to have a clear idea on the essential equipments required, time and even the environment required for the recovery process of the patient. In addition, nursing theories help the health practitioners to adhere to the rules and guidelines which are essential as well as a requirement in the provision of their services. Theories are more quickly to remember and base upon to provide a favorable healing environment for the patient (George, 2002).
Meta-Paradigms in nursing
Over the last two decades, nursing theories have been formulated. These theories have been undergoing modifications in order to incorporate new ideas and concept. Nevertheless, these theories must have the key meta-paradigms of nursing within them. As a consequence, only additions to these key backbones can be done. These meta-paradigms of nursing are person, health, environment and nursing and are to be incorporated in every theory (Tomey & Alligood, 2002). Person; this is the client who is set to receive the treatment. In addition, he or she is put under a recovery environment favorable for his or her healing process. Health; is the wellness of a person and forms the foundation unto which the development of nursing theories are based. The overall goal of the nursing process is to attain a superb health of the person within the shortest period of time. This minimizes the level of suffering felt by the person as well as reducing the level of utilizable resources (George, 2002).
Nursing; incorporates the professionalism and the knowledge base of the person administering the health care to the person. According to research studies which have been carried out in the United States of America, they have shown that a significant number of deaths which occur are contributed by lack of professionalism and even general knowledge. Environment; it incorporates both internal and external environment which influences largely the healing and the well being of the patient in this case the person.
Development of a nursing theory
Development of a nursing theory is based on various concepts and ideas. For instance, general system theory is based on general information of body chemistry, molecules and drugs interactions among others. Adaptation theory is mainly focused on how a living organism can fit into a new environment through adaptation changes. It is a continuous process which involves application of a stimulus with a subsequent production of a response. Developmental theory incorporates the changes which occurs in the human being body since the conception stage to the last stage which is death. Integration of these factors which are succinct forms the basics of the development of the nursing theory (Tomey & Alligood, 2002).
A nursing theory should have similarities with other theories which have been formulated before and to have shown a high degree of success. For example, environmental theory has shown to have a recommendable degree in the applicability of its elements and ideas (George, 2002). Subsequently, basing this theory to develop other modern theories is a generally accepted technique. In addition, a nursing theory should not limit the operation field of a health practitioner. It should act as a knowledge base where the health practitioners can gather more information which cannot be accessed from other theories. It should show some uniqueness from the rest of the theories (Tomey & Alligood, 2002).
A useful nursing theory should have particular distinct characteristics which reflect the theory’s strength in the nursing process. A nursing theory should base the assumptions on behavioral element, health issues, population and the surrounding on observable action or facts. For instance, provision of clean environment is an observable fact which can render the recovery process to be quick and efficient. Nursing theory should also base its assumptions on logical and reasonable issues which can be integrated and accepted in the nursing profession. as an elaboration, issues in nursing are very complex touching on various elements of life such as culture, ethic, oaths and fiscal elements to mention but a few. Subsequently, a particular nursing theory should incorporate positively each of these elements (George, 2002).
A nursing theory forms a platform unto which nurses and other health practitioners base their daily activities unto. Theories act as a pool of knowledge which can be accessed easily and applied in the nursing process. In addition, unlike other sources of knowledge, nursing theories have a predictable outcome based on past experiments, researches and similarity of the basic concepts and ideas. Though a number of theories may be developed, they all rotate around four meta-paradigms of nursing. These meta-paradigms of nursing are person, nursing, environment and health.
Tomey, A.M & Alligood, M.R. (2002). Nursing theorists and their work. (5th ed.).