Cumulative effects of genetics, environmental impacts and longtime wear and tear on the bodies take a toll to cause health problems. These effects over time damage and kill the cells. Slow replacement of adult cells means inadequate compensation for the loss, and it is this time that signs of ageing start appearing together with health issues that impair the normal functioning of the body.

Ageing cells contribute to disease. It will be simple to cure or control many diseases by preventing, slowing down or even reversing cell ageing. Stem cell and related regenerative medicine therapies are ways with much potential for solutions to many life problems that cause ageing.

Stem cells are the building blocks of the bodies. Their ability evolves, duplicate, change and adapt to other cell types is the essence of body regeneration. Stem cells stay dormant in the fat stores and bone marrow waiting for signals that trigger their movement after damage to proteins in the immune system. They scrutinize damaged area and determine the specific form of cell necessary for healing.

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a type of easy to extract adult stem cell without causing much controversy like embryonic stem cells. MSCs are a useful treatment for various pathological disorders and conditions such as heart disease or cancer. These stem cells are one of the core factors in the regeneration of skin muscle, bone, cartilage and muscle. This regeneration helps to prevent ageing.


Stem cell therapies are the last anti-ageing treatment. They are unique because specialists can harvest stem cells for a patient and transplant them when needed. Cell treatments replenish the body with a fresh supply of concentrated stem cells that allows a repair and rejuvenation process in all the organs including the skin. Human skin is essential because it is the most obvious indicator of youthfulness or age.

Use of cell provides a better outcome than plastic surgery that addresses the looks. Cell treatment solves the cause. It triggers adult stem cells to replace, grow, repair and rejuvenate at a cellular level which beyond mere appearances. Adult stem cells restore youthful looks of energy. It also resolves age-relating damage to the face, organs and full body.

Anti-aging therapy improves overall health, the function of organs and strength. It also enhances the cells to make the recipient younger and robust. Energetic cell improves overall body function allowing a person to feel more youthful and become more active again. Anti-aging cell treatment causes impressive results in all the age groups regardless of gender or ethnicity.


The organization that regulates running of medical and health matters such as FDA are yet to issue a blanket approval for anti-aging stem cell treatment but still openly research and provision of scientific research. Reputable treatment centers follow the guidelines by manipulating MSCs only minimally. They treat patients by following this procedure.

Anti-aging cell treatment takes only a few hours without downtime. It causes moderate discomfort at the site of harvest and re-injection but rarely requires pain medication. Patients can perform normal activities soon after treatment. A single infusion is enough for most people, but some need two or three within a year. Adult stem cells release rate begin dropping by 45% at the age of 35 till it reaches 90% at 65.

Adult stem cells are much essential at this age to help in fighting various age relating infections. Slow release of adult stem cells slows down everything such as recovery from illness, injury and daily activity. Stem cell circulation in children is 100%, and it is the reason they heal quickly and have more energy.



A study by the University of Buffalo found that spider venom contains a protein that can treat muscular dystrophy. Muscular dystrophy is an umbrella term for several diseases that cause loss of muscle mass leading to inability to move, walk or even swallow. The study found the protein helps to stop muscle cells from deteriorating. Though it was not a complete cure on its own, it assists to slow down the disease from progressing.

Tarantulas spiders harbor healing properties in the venom. Yale University had a screening process called “toxineering” that can sift through millions of spider toxins to find those with most compatibility to painkiller drugs. Researchers found that Peruvian green velvet tarantula has a toxin that can block chronic pain. Another recent study found that venom of spider has seven different compounds that can help to relieve chronic pain. Analysis of 206 different spider species shows that 40% of the poisons have compounds that block nerve activity relating to chronic pain.

Researchers also have a reason to believe that further development of spider venoms might lead to treatments for spinal cord damage, cardiac arrhythmias, and erectile dysfunction.The need to study venom’s ability to cure erectile dysfunction is as a result of a long-lasting erection that a South American developed after a bite by spider called “armed spider.”


Snake venom has been a subject of scientific study for decades, and it has medicinal properties. Most have antibacterial and painkiller features. Snake venom has hem toxins that target the circulatory system and specifically attack the clotting ability as well as the muscles. Scientists found that they could use hemotoxins in medicine to treat blood disorders and heart attacks.



The number of people contracting infection on the vessel kept on increasing until experts began questioning the wisdom of Japan’s quarantine strategy. A big reason for concern is that the space on a cruise ship is enclosed. Crew members were at higher risk of infection and spreading the virus. Passengers stayed in their cabins, but crew members interact with passengers when serving them at living or working spaces. The 542 people that tested positive for coronavirus are approximately 15% of those on board.


The diamond princess became a fertile ground for the Covid-19 virus to breed. Kentaro Iwata, an infectious diseases expert, sent onboard by the Japanese government before allowing dismemberment of passengers, claims the ship was inadequate. The crew did not create a distinction between red and green zones. The red zone is set aside for those who show signs of virus contamination. Iwata was on the ship as a member of the disaster medical assistance team.

Iwata also noted numerous lapses in the infection control measures. It is not all crew members who wore full protective gear, yet they were walking around the ship. A lack of protective clothing and movement increased risk of carrying contamination to different parts. People, according to Iwata, were eating while wearing their medical gloves and handling a phone while in their protective suits. It meant that they are transferring the virus to their mouths, phones, and other surfaces that they will handle later without protective gear.

Japanese vice Minister of Health Gauku Hashimoto disputes views by Iwata, terming them a misconception that it is amateurs rather than professional specialists who worked on the ship to prevent infections.

Dr. Antony Fauci, a director of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, believes that quarantine on a ship was not unreasonable, but it failed. His reasoning is that virus transmission went on during quarantine. An executive director at World Health Organization Dr. Michael Ryan added that cruise ships are one of the environments that can accelerate the spread of a virus. He hopes that the Japanese authorities will follow up on the people who appropriately disembark from Diamond Princess.

The process of disembarking from the cruise ship involved a test before leaving the ship.Those onboard take the temperature and undergo a fever scan. Disaster medical assistance members also look out for other signs of infection like breathing difficulties and cough. They took saliva samples during screening.

Japanese nationals leave their contact information with the authorities. A clearance from the ship does not guarantee acceptance to board a plane when Non-Japanese citizens plan to fly home. Several countries, like the USA and Korea, decided to charter planes that will fly citizens home.

A high coronavirus infection on the diamond princess cruise ship is a reason enough for shipping companies to organize thorough screening before passengers board their vessels.



Wuhan mayor at the onset of coronavirus said he did not have the authority to publicize this epidemic until mid-January 2020. Coronavirus disease at the time began spreading. One of the casualties is Dr. Li Wenliang, a 34-year-old doctor who was the first to sound an alarm on coronavirus.


China Lunar New Year holiday in JANUARY increased the pace of spread going by reports by Wuhan Mayor. Mayor Zhou Xianwang said over 5,000,000 people left the city before the government imposed travel restrictions before the Chinese New Year. People who were unfamiliar with the Chinese way of life had trouble to understand the immense travel that occurs during the Lunar New Year. It is a one month period that sees around 3 billion people moving to their home towns or traveling for vacations.

Infections disease researchers conclude that it is highly probable that coronavirus spread beyond Wuhan as well as other quarantined areas before officials could implement the plan. The researchers are from the University of Texas, Austin, Hong Kong, China, and France institutions. UT Austin’s Texas Advanced Computing Center’s comprehensive travel data concludes the 128 Chinese cities have a greater risk of 50% of infection because someone exposed to virus went there before the quarantine. An estimate is that 11,213 cases of coronavirus were in Wuhan before quarantine began on January 22, 2020. The rate is 10 times higher than reported cases.

A paper by the research institutions shows that the chance of at least one person carrying the virus to another city is 99%. These carriers have traveled from Wuhan city to Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen before the quarantine in Wuhan. It is a reason for the expansion of quarantine to include other cities with a population of 60 million. The first fatality in Beijing died on January 27, 2020.


Before experiencing severe symptoms, some people did not see the need to cancel their travel plans. They believed they had mild infections like a common cold, and they were well enough to travel or were reluctant to pay a fee of up to $400 to change flights. The previous cases of coronavirus caused similar illnesses to a common cold hence the reason for the first assumption by patients. The lack of knowledge by some people that they have symptoms of human Coronaviruses is a reason that they travel without concern o for risk of infecting others. The virus can be contagious for up to 14 days incubation period even when a patient does not display symptoms.




World Health Organization has declared coronavirus a global emergency as the virus spreads fast in china and other countries. The spread is a concern for countries with a weaker health system than china and the first world. China alone has reports of 70,548 coronavirus infections as of February 17, 2020. Most of them were in Wuhan and surrounding regions. The high rate of infection has led to deaths of at least 1,770 people, according to a report by China’s national health commission. One person has died in France due to coronavirus, and many other countries across continents have been reporting new cases of the virus.

An analysis by scientists at Harvard University concludes than a person infected with coronavirus can transmit it up to an average of three people, making it highly contagious like SARS. New information since the publication of a report by Harvard suggested that that virus may be more infectious. It has spread to over 28,000 people a few weeks after detection, surpassing the total from the SARS outbreak that lasted for months.

COVID-19 is not just infecting the people living with the Chinese areas that record a high infection rate. Non-Chinese persons who have visited the Asian country or come into close contact with persons who recently traveled there are also contracting the virus.


Coronavirus has a long incubation period. A person will not know about its existence for many days, thus fail to get a timely diagnosis and early treatment. Estimates of the incubation period for coronavirus are that it lasts up to 14 days. Carriers do not show symptoms for all these days. A danger is that carriers can still infect other persons. The onset of the symptoms starts with fever and respiratory issues such as coughing or breathing difficulties. A test for COVID-19 only identifies a case when a person has symptoms.

Director of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Robert Redfield said during a briefing that the virus is difficult to detect. Redfield said a person could have a detectable virus that then disappears soon after then can be detected three days later. CDC still does not know the natural history of the secretion of coronavirus.


The first symptoms of COVID-19 are similar to those of respiratory illnesses like dry cough, fever, and shortness of breath. Some also get a sore throat and headache. It might feel like a cold or severe flu.

The virus will, in the absence of treatment, develop to attack the lungs. Infections in around 20% of patients develop to become more serious infections. The virus starts to replicate as it enters lung cells, destroying them in the process. The immune system detects coronavirus as invaders triggering it to react in an attempt to contain the virus. The response of the immune system to the invader can also cause inflammation and destroy the lung tissue. The result might be pneumonia that will make it difficult to breathe if the air sacs start filling with fluid and get an inflammation.

The higher number of more than 1.800 recorded deaths due to COVID-19 shows that coronavirus is deadly. The fatalities have surpassed the toll of the SARS outbreak in 2002-2003.




Lab creation theory has also been the talk by other people after a scientific paper ob bioRxiv on January 31, 2020, claimed there was evidence that protein sequence in coronavirus had many similarities to HIV.

Many scientists pointed out that the analysis had flaws noting that the sequence on COVID-19(a type of coronavirus that is spreading now) has extremely short sequences. They match other organisms, so there is no reason to conclude they are from HIV. Authors withdrew it after two days explaining that they do not want to feed conspiracy theories. Many websites and publications continue publishing the theory even after bioRxiv pulled down the scientific paper.

Kristian Anderson, a director of infectious disease genomics (Scripps Research Translation Institute), is among the viral genomics experts who dispute artificial creation of coronavirus. He says HIV study is a misunderstanding on the performance of the analysis. Andersen explains that the short proteins Indian scientists found similar to HIV are a result of Coronaviruses’ natural evolution. He suggests that authors of scientific paper linking Coronaviruses to HIV missed the point.

Anderson says that had they taken made a step to compare new coronavirus to related bat viruses instead of SARS alone, they would have found the presence of peptides in bat viruses. The peptides do not develop from HIV.

Some Facebook claim that HIV medication can treat coronavirus, so there is a connection. A University of North Carolina virologist explains that there are few anti-viral approved drugs, and doctors can try them on patients at the emergence of a new virus to see if it will help. He adds that many antiviral are HIV medications, and doctors will naturally prescribe them. However, there is no evidence that coronavirus is responding to HIV drugs than others.


A general notion even in a surprise paper by the South China University of Technology is that Wuhan Center for Disease Control could be the origin of contagion in Wuhan city and Hubei Province. The report claims that Genome sequences from coronavirus patients were 89 or 90 % identical to the Bat Bat CoV ZC45 coronavirus. It is a type in native bats found 600 miles away from Wuhan, and they are unlikely to have flown there.

There is consistency with evidence relating to the origin of the virus to animals. Virologist Timothy Sheahan said it related to lessons for scientists in the last two decades that all viruses, including SARS, share 96% of the genome with bat virus. The genetic data confirms the scientific claim that viruses, including coronavirus, comes from a bat reservoir and not a lab.The genetic differences of COVID-19 to its recent ancestors are consistent with expected changes during natural evolution, according to Fred Hutchinson, a computation biologist. He explained in a Twitter post that an engineered virus would most likely have a distortion in amino acid, nucleotide ration, and changes focusing on a genetic subset. Bioengineering would have caused meaningful engineering to a virus, but no evidence points to such happening in 2019-to genome.



In addition to the inhibition of cell membrane process of fungal organisms, clotrimazole also inhibits fungal metabolism and transformation of fungi into mycelial forms that are the infective forms of yeast. Through these actions, this drug can eliminate fungal organisms through fungicidal effects. For this reason, this drug has been identified as the primary choice for treating all types of candidiasis among pediatric and adult patients.

Other therapeutic actions of this drug include inhibition of purine uptake by the fungal cells and also defective biosynthesis of lipids. Clotrimazole is not only used in treating fungal infections, but it can also help in treating diarrhea due to its action chloride receptors in the cells lining the intestinal epithelial layer (Akins & Sobel, 2017)


Diaper rash is caused by a yeast infection that is usually introduced into the baby through unhygienic conditions surrounding the process of changing the diapers. Hence this condition is highly preventable. For the above client, the mother needs to be educated on how to manage diaper rash at home. The goal of this health education is to treat the rash and to reduce exposure to further yeast infection (Sharifi-Heris et al., 2018).

The mother should be encouraged to keep the area around the diaper region as dry as possible. This is achieved through drying the place with a towel before putting the baby’s diaper on. Also, the diaper that the baby is putting their own should be dry. Doing this is essential to prevent yeast from colonizing the parts of the diaper and the baby (Sharifi-Heris et al., 2018). To promote dryness of the baby, it is necessary for the mother to have the baby free from any diaper or closed clothe. Allowing the baby to stay open without any diaper on should be done in a clean environment that is free from other organisms that can introduce infections to the baby.

Maintenance of hygiene is another aspect that the mother needs to know about diaper care. She is to be encouraged to ensure that hands and other materials need to change the diaper area as clean as possible to prevent the introduction of other infections such as urinary tract infections. In addition to this, there is a need for mothers to avoid irritant solutions such as soaps to clean the baby in the diaper area (Klunk, Domingues & Wiss, 2014). She should instead use a clean towel to wipe the baby when changing the baby. If necessary, the mother should use antifungal gel to protect the baby’s skin against any form of fungal infections. The mother should also be taught on the signs and symptoms that warrant the baby to be taken to a clinician. They include infected rash, fussy child, and seek-looking behaviors.



Pelvic Inflammatory Disease usually presents with symptoms that are localized to the pelvis and reproductive systems and also other systems and organs in the body (Kreisel et al., 2017). Pain in the lower abdomen is the first symptom of PID. Patients with this condition usually complain of sharp piercing pain in either or both of the lower abdominal quadrants. Other patients will complain of a burning sensation that radiates either to the back of the lower extremities (Hinkle & Cheever, 2017). Different pain characteristic is due to the various causative agents and organs involved. There is vaginal discharge in PID patients. The characteristic of the discharge is abnormal smell or odor. The amount of the discharge also varies with patients with PID. The majority will have heavy and uncontrolled bleeding both during and after the usual menstrual cycle (Brunham, Gottlieb & Paavonen, 2015).

Urinary tract symptoms are also present with PID. There is difficulty in urination accompanied by severe pain. Such symptoms will occur if the disease is related to a urinary tract infection. Abnormal sexual intercourse is another symptom of PID. With this condition, the patient will complain of pain sex accompanied by severe bleeding. Such symptoms occur if the disease results from a complication of a sexually transmitted infection (Hinkle & Cheever, 2017).


Abdominal and other systemic symptoms are also evident among patients with PID. Gastrointestinal symptoms include reduced appetite, nausea, and vomiting. Bowel discomfort is also present during PID disease (Brunham, Gottlieb & Paavonen, 2015). Headache and generalized body weakness are the other symptoms of the disease. On palpation, the abdomen might be tender of indicative of swollen organs in the pelvic cavity. As a result, pelvic examination through radiological studies is essential to determine the organs involved (Hinkle & Cheever, 2017).

Clinical management of pelvic inflammatory disease involves preventive, curative, and rehabilitative approaches. The main goal of these approaches is to eliminate symptoms, present complications, and promote patient recovery and restoration of normal reproductive health. Drug therapy involves of use of antibiotics to treat underlying causes and analgesics to reduce pain (Savaris et al., 2017). Bleeding may result in a significant loss of blood; hence, the patient may be transfused. Normal fluid replacement therapy through intravenous solutions is also recommended. Nursing management usually involves supportive and rehabilitative activities for the patient. Evaluation of the patient for response to drug therapy is another role of nurses in managing patients with PID (Ross, Guaschino, Cusini & Jensen, 2018).Also, nurses monitor patients for disease progress and reaction to medication and take necessary actions to prevent patient. Nurses educate patients and their partners on the importance of having single-sex partners to prevent contraction of the disease. For patients with a history of sexually transmitted infections, temporary abstinence is essential for the patient to promote quick recovery (Brunham, Gottlieb & Paavonen, 2015).

Free Standardizing Nurse Preceptor Training Essay Sample

Free Standardizing Nurse Preceptor Training Essay Sample

– What might happen if you did not achieve the defined outcome for the solution? What alternatives might be considered
Every individual is entitled to quality health care services irrespective of the financial status, race, ethnicity, tribe and social status. Offering a standard training program to nurses will ensure equal delivery of services to people and minimize the number of complains found in our health care centers. The defined outcome of this project was to promote preceptor training programs to nurses in order to improve the health care sector and meet the World Health Organization standards. Failure to attain the expected outcome would result into a health care industry that faces the same problems as before. In addition, according to Spetz (2014), the U.S Bureau of Labor Statistics expects to increase the number of registered nurses by 26% by the year 2020. Failure to achieve the outcome would limit the following expectations leading to inadequate number of registered nurses in the country.
Some of the best alternatives to be considered in order to achieve the outcomes would include the following. Firstly, the government should introduce a law that requires every nurse to undergo preceptor training course before being registered as a practicing nurse. Secondly, health care centers should offer scholarships to their staff that have not undergone the training in order to acquire the required skills for the improvement of health care services in the future.
– How did the literature support this particular outcome over another?
The literature review played a vital role in supporting the outcome of the project by providing a wide range of options to select from. The literature on different training programs and their effects to the health care industry have helped in determining the best approach to follow that has limited challenges and best arrives at the expectations of the training. Moreover, the literature has offered a strong basis for determining the best approach in terms of cost, reliability, effectiveness, and professions in the area of preceptor training.
– How did the change process or theory enable you to develop the appropriate outcomes for the problem/concern?
The change process has assisted in developing the appropriate outcomes for this problem because it provides the basic ideas on how to promote change in a society and make people understand the need for change. This theory enables an individual understand the aspects of change management and how to use them in the organizational context (Myers & Hulks, 2012). Through this theory, I could manage to convince a number of health care centers to implement the preceptor training for their nurses using the learned literature to base my arguments.

Myers, P., & Hulks, S. (2012).Organizational change: perspectives on theory and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Spetz, J. (2014). Economics of Health Care and Nursing: How Will Health Reform Affect Demand for RNs? Nursing economic, 32.


Community Health Nurse Essay Examples

Community Health Nurse Essay Examples

Community Health Nurse
Miami is a growing city in Florida, with an estimated population of 362, 000 people. The health status of the area has been particularly devastating, and health need assessment was carried out to verify the actual needs of the society, and how to meet them. The assessment was based on a plethora of facets, which entailed; finding out the number of people who suffered from various diseases, achieved through selection of few random Miami residents, representing a diverse cross section of the population. In conjunction to this, the relative need for the treatment was also identified, which incorporated the urge of better working nation, and the attainment of a good life. Further, there was the determination of the health services, both in existence and non-existence, comprising of a requisition for more health facilities, trained personnel, and faster and automated systems. In tandem to this, the core issue depicted from the assessment was the lack of proper information on the available health facilities and resources that could facilitate a better provision of healthcare to the residents of Miami. Provision of adequate information on health facilities and resources, is paramount to the provision of proficient health care to a given community, achieved through detailed awareness.
Over the years, the foremost, leading health issues in Miami has been chronic diseases-cancer and heart diseases-, mental health and stress levels, overweight, drug use, tobacco use, and injuries arising from frequent violence (Health Council of South Florida, 2007). The health issues have been profoundly attributed to lack of adequate information or lack of awareness on how to access medical facilities or the resources. In accordance to Health Council of South Florida (2007), the lack of effective spread of information about the health resources can be highly ascribed to the disparities in cultural and language aspects that construct barriers to the spread of information. In line with this, racial segregation, economic factors, for instance, poor housing and poverty, have also contributed to the enormous lack of spread of information on the availability of health resources (Health Council of South Florida, 2007).
Many attempts have been put in place in order to curb and solve the strenuous issue of the provision of better health care, and availing all the necessary and relevant information to the residents of Miami. However, most of the formulated principles and processes are quite ineffectual, ascribed to the fact that they are non educative, non informative, non evaluative, and less competent. This is depicted by the increase rates of tobacco consumption especially in high school students, which is a clear concept on lack of education and information on the dangers of tobacco (Florida Department of Health, 2006). Moreover, most of adults and parents with children suffering from various diseases are likely not to report the daily health problems to medical practitioners, indicating high levels of ignorance ascribed to lack of effective and relevant information (Health Council of South Florida, 2007).
In light with this, provision of adequate information on the availability of health resources for proficient health care can only be attained through aggressive processes of assessment, composed of detailed monitoring of health, diagnosis and investigation of health associated problems (Lundy & Janes, 2009). An aggressive assessment will aid in the understanding of certain health facets grappling the community, and consequently, how the environmental, economic and social factors affect them and how to solve them and inform the people (Lundy & Janes, 2009). The only set back will be consumption of a lot of time in undertaking the whole process. In addition to this, the policy making should be rigorous, so as to capture aspects like educating, empowering, and informing the society, mobilizing the community, and developing relevant policies, so as to engage the community on health associated issues, for the achievement of an adept health care and access to medical facilities (Lundy & Janes, 2009). The constrain, which can be, exhibited in the process is prospects of illiteracy, and non-cooperation by the community members. In addition to this, assurance should also be emphasized upon the community members, highlighting the following; enforcement of the formed policies, provision of care, assurance of competent work force, allowing better coordination of the health facilities, and the addressing all forms of health disparities (Lundy & Janes, 2009).
The most effective solution is the formulation of policy that consists of educating, empowering, informing the society, and mobilizing the community to participate in health related issues and report any health concern, for proficient achievement of appropriate health system and care (Lundy & Janes, 2009). In line with this, the policy will offer an efficacious opportunity to monitoring of diseases, provision of predictive information, on which to base treatments, types and lengths of care, and level of provider needed to achieve positive outcomes (Lundy & Janes, 2009). Conversely, the essential role of a nurse in a community is to position himself/herself at the interface between the community and the strategic decision so as to be able to transmit information about the community, also observe the impacts and interventions of the policies in the community (Sines, Saunders, Forbes-Burford, 2009). Thus with the suggested solution, the community nurse will be in a position, of effecting the solution in the community.
Concisely, lack of adequate information on health resources, has led to the death of quite a number of residents of Miami, due to ignorance about some preventable diseases. Besides, the inefficient spread of information has been due lack of the strong emphasis on the importance accessing medical facilities, language and cultural factors, racial discrimination and poverty. Nevertheless, the formation of quality policy that entails; educating, empowering, and mobilizing the community, provides an ultimate and sound solution to the problem of inefficient spread of the required information about health resources. The role of the community nurse as an intermediary between the decision makers and the community is also remarkably indispensable since it will allow the implementation of the suggested solution.

Florida Department of Health. (2006). Florida Youth Tobacco Survey Bay County Changes and Trends from 2000 to 2006. Retrieved from
Health Council of South Florida. (2007). Living Healthy, Living Longer: Translating Research into Action. A Guide to Health Improvement Opportunities in South Miami-Dade. Retrieved from
Lundy, S. K. & Janes, S. (2009). Community Health Nursing: Caring For the Public’s Health (2nd Ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.