INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE DIET AND LIFESTYLE FOOD FOR TREATING ULCERATIVE COLITIS INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE DIET AND LIFESTYLE

FOOD FOR TREATING ULCERATIVE COLITIS INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

Ulcerative colitis is the inflammatory disease of the large intestine (colon) that often includes bloody diarrhea. Inflammation does not get through the full intestinal wall and does not cause fistulas. Extensive surgery might eventually require surgery to remove the affected area. A person with ulcerative colitis flare type of IBD can manage symptoms by adhering to these dietary recommendations.

  • Follow a low residue diet it relieves diarrhea and abdominal pain
  • Avoid foods that might increase the output of stool such as vegetables, fruits, prunes and beverages containing caffeine.
  • Decrease alcohol consumption
  • Decrease amount of concentrated sweets such as soda, juices, and candy from the diet to decrease the water in the intestines as it might contribute to watery stools.
  • Try incorporating more omega-3 fatty acid in the diet as they have an anti-inflammatory effect. You can find plenty of omega-3 fatty acids in fish.
  • Nutritional supplements help patients with poor appetite and poor toleration of solid foods

Patients with Ulcerative colitis should take smaller more frequent meals as the body tolerates them better and it is a pattern that helps to increase the nutrition that the body takes in every day.

FOOD FOR TREATING CROHN’S DISEASE INFLAMMATORY BOWEL DISEASE

Crohn’s is a chronic inflammatory disease that can affect any portion of the gastrointestinal tract without a known cause. Inflammation can affect the whole intestinal wall often causing diarrhea, fistulas (an abnormal opening), strictures (narrowing) and mal-absorption.

  • Diet recommendations for managing Crohn’s disease flare
  • Patients with Crohn’s disease can manage their inflammation better by taking these types of foods.
  • Take a low residue to prevent diarrhea and relieve abdominal pain. Taking food when cold can also reduce diarrhea.
  • Low-fat diet if the stools are oily and foul-smelling because it indicates fat malabsorption. A doctor or nutritionist can make confirmation.
  • Smaller, more frequent meals as the body tolerate them better and maximize nutritional intake
  • Nutritional supplements for loss of appetite and reduced tolerance of solid foods.
  • Avoid nuts, beans, seeds, and kernels if IBD is causing strictures
  • Avoid foods that can increase stool output such as vegetables, fresh fruits, caffeinated beverages, and prunes.
  • Lactose-free diet for those with signs of lactose intolerance. Lactose is the cause of gas, cramping, bloating and diarrhea 30-90 minutes after taking milk, large amounts of dairy products or ice. A breath hydrogen test can help to determine if someone has lactose intolerance.

People with ulcerative and Crohn’s conditions find it difficult to attain their daily nutritional needs because some of the foods worsen their IBD symptoms. Vitamins and other nutritional supplements are essential at this time as they help to cover essential nutritional needs for people with IBD.

A low –residue diet comprising of soft and bland foods helps to relieve flare-ups. These are excellent examples of the foods that people with IBD should take:

  • Bananas
  • Applesauce
  • Oatmeal
  • Eggs
  • Lean poultry or fish, plain
  • Mashed potatoes
  • Rice
  • Noodles
  • Canned fruit
  • Diluted juices
  • White bread
  • Plain cereals

Many people receive misleading information requiring them to avoid entire food groups. It is not necessary unless they worsen the symptoms. It is best to eat different types of food as possible to increase chances of getting a balanced and nutritious diet. A doctor, nutritionist, dieticians, and other healthcare professionals can help to identify specific dietary needs.

WHAT TREATMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR WOMEN WHO HAVE REPEATED MISCARRIAGES

WHAT TREATMENTS ARE AVAILABLE FOR WOMEN WHO HAVE REPEATED MISCARRIAGES

TYPES OF MISCARRIAGE

Miscarriages occur due to various causes, but they are in these two groups.

Recurrent early miscarriages: these are miscarriages that occur within the first trimester due to chromosomal problems of the embryo or genetic factors. Approximately 50-80 percent of the inevitable losses have an abnormal chromosomal number. Uterine structural issues also play a role in the early miscarriage.

Recurrent late miscarriage: occurs due to uterine abnormalities, incompetent cervix, autoimmune problems or premature labor.

TREATMENTS AVAILABLE FOR WOMEN WHO HAVE REPEATED MISCARRIAGES

Doctors can use one of these treatment options or a combination to treat the problem of consecutive pregnancy losses.

1. Initiating Lifestyle changes

A healthy lifestyle improves the chances of sustaining a healthy pregnancy to the end. Women who smoke cigarettes or take illicit drugs like cocaine should stop the habit, and it will lower the risk of a miscarriage. Limiting caffeine and alcohol intake might also help. Doctors say that weight with an increased risk of miscarriage thus maintaining a healthy weight can help with favorable pregnancy outcomes. There is no proof that mild depression, anxiety and stress trigger recurrent pregnancy loss but they go along with pregnancy loss. Psychological support and counseling might help a couple to cope with their emotional pain after a miscarriage to create a suitable environment for pregnancy.

2. Blood-thinning medicine

These types of medication can help to lower risk of miscarriage if a woman takes them during pregnancy. Women with clotting (thrombophilia) or autoimmune problems can receive treatment of low-dose aspirin and heparin. These types of medicine are not for self-administering purpose and women should not take them without the guidance of a healthcare provider because they can increase the chances of bleeding symptoms such as stomach ulcers.

3. Correction of other medical problems

Recurrent pregnancy loss might be occurring due to some medical issues. These include high levels of the hormone prolactin, abnormal blood sugars and an under or overactive thyroid gland. Treating underlying medical conditions such as thyroid dysfunction, diabetes or high prolactin will improve the chances to have a healthy full-term pregnancy.

4. Surgery

Surgery fixes some problems in a womb (uterus) that increase chances of pregnancy loss. Fibroids (benign tumors), scar tissue or extra tissue dividing the uterus (septum)are some of the issues that require correction by surgery. Correcting the inside shape of a uterus can also lower a chance to geta miscarriage. A surgeon passes a tool with a camera (hysteroscope) through the birth canal to observe and repair the inside of a womb. This procedure takes just a day while recovery takes a few days.

5. Genetic screening

One parent has a translocation (rearrangement) of the chromosomes in about 5% of the couples who experience repeated miscarriages. Fetuses are likely to have chromosome imbalances if one of the parents has a translocation and chance of miscarriage will be higher. A specialist can study the blood of both parents through a process called karyotype to determine if any has a translocation.

A doctor can recommend genetic counseling is a study of the blood reveals a chromosome problem. A fertility specialist might recommend fertility treatments such as IVF(in vitro fertilization) although many couples with translocations finally conceive and get a full term baby. IVF is a process of mixing sperm and eggs outside the body in a lab. They form an embryo that a doctor returns to the uterus but after the preimplantation genetic screening to confirm if there is chromosomes are in the right order. Genetic testing and IVF allows choosing of embryos without translocations and reduce chances of a miscarriage.

CAN STEM CELLS BE USED TO HELP CUT DEATH RATES IN HEART ATTACK PATIENTS?

CAN STEM CELLS BE USED TO HELP CUT DEATH RATES IN HEART ATTACK PATIENTS?

The use of stem cells that have the potential to grow into a variety of heart cell types can potentially repair and regenerate damaged heart tissue. Seventeen hear Patients under observation of researchers after infusion of stem cells from their hearts showed that their scar tissue had shrunk by about a half a year after the procedure. They are now transplanting various types of stem cell and progenitor cells into a patient to repair damaged heart muscle. These strategies mainly use adult stem cells in the bone marrow, fat or even the heart. They might also use pluripotent (iPS or ES) cells.

Preliminary results from the experiments with adult stem cells are encouraging because they show an improvement of cardiac function although they might die shortly after transplantation. The results brought the idea that stem cells are capable of releasing signals that improve function without replacing lost muscle —clinical trials on transplanting adult stem cells from bone marrow and started in the early 2000s. These trials helped to demonstrate that transplanting cells into a damaged heart is feasible and safe for patients. However, the larger trials were random, placebo-controlled and blinded thus indications indication of an improvement in function were fewer.

The consensus now is that adult stem cells have a modest benefit to the cardiac function. An outstanding feature about the stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes is that they beat in unison when in a culture dish in a similar way in healthy heart muscles. This observation is essential as the researchers explore if they many one days grow replacement tissue for transplantation to patients. It is still not clear whether lab-grown cardiomyocytes will integrate or even beat in unison with the surrounding cells after transplanting in a beating human heart.

STUDY ON THE ABILITY OF STEM CELLS TO CUT DEATH RATES IN HEART ATTACK PATIENTS

Injecting adult stem cells to the heart has a potential to halve deaths that occur due to heart failure according to a study published in Lancet. This study found that the death rate and hospitalization in patients who got this treatment was lower by 37 per cent.

The study had 126 patients from various hospitals across the USA. Sixty of the patients got an injection with stem cells while 66 got an injection with a placebo. This procedure took two hours, and most of the patients got a discharge a day after surgery. The researchers got stem cells from culture grown bone marrow for direct injection into the hearts of the patients in the non-placebo group.

The number of patients from the stem cell group who died after receiving stem cell therapy was 3.4% while 51.7% got hospitalization. This number is lower compared to 13.7 and 82.4% respectively in a group that got a placebo.

FUTURE OF STEM CELLS IN CUTTING DEATH RATES IN HEART ATTACK PATIENTS

People with interest in heart health have been discussing cell therapy and its capability for many years, and these results show that it works. The conclusion is that it works by slowing down or reversing the rate of disease progression. Researchers believe that stem cell injection makes the existing cells to work better rather than increase the number of blood or muscle vessels in the heart. The study authors, however, say that just found a small overall improvement in the heart function.

The hope by researchers is to start a larger clinical trial that involves more patients with heart failure in the next phase. Some researchers believe that stem cell therapy might become a standard treatment for heart muscle damage is just a few others away whereas others feel that it will take much more work.

DOES THE SIZE OF YOUR WAIST INCREASES YOUR DIABETES AND HEART ATTACK RISK?

DOES THE SIZE OF YOUR WAIST INCREASES YOUR DIABETES AND HEART ATTACK RISK?

Waist measurement helps is assessing the risk of diabetes and heart attack by because it helps to determine if the middle has more amount of fat. You can measure it along the body mass index (BMI) and use these tools together to find an indication of the risk that occurs due to excess body fat.

IMPORTANCE WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE IN EVALUATING THE RISK OF DIABETES AND HEART ATTACK RISK

The circumference of the waist is more a reliable way to measure the amount of abdominal or visceral fat. This refers to the fat around the middle section including the belly.BMI is the measurement that many people have been using to determine if they have excess body fat. BMI measures general obesity without distinguishing between the fat around the waist or the hips. The fat around the waist requires more attention because of it metabolically more active than fat around the hips. It has a close association with insulin resistance and might have a stronger association with a risk of diabetes, heart diseases, and stroke.

These measures of fat distribution are more suitable indicators for risked cardiovascular disease risk

A study suggests that measuring the size of the waistline and comparing it to hip size may be a better way of predicting a risk of heart disease than BMI that has been in extensive use but is based on the high and weight alone. It does not concern its measures to consider the distribution of fat in the body.

WHAT IS THE POSSIBILITY OF FINDING A CURE FOR CYSTIC FIBROSIS?

WHAT IS THE POSSIBILITY OF FINDING A CURE FOR CYSTIC FIBROSIS?

GENE THERAPY

Research on gene therapy viability to treat lung diseases that occur due to CF shows two virus-based vectors can restore working of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein that is faulty in cystic fibrosis patients. Researchers working on CF pigs showed that gene replacement normalizes important aspects of lung biology and improves ability by airway secretions to kill bacteria.Their report is compelling proof of the idea that gene therapy can sort our CF because the researchers got their findings by testing on animal models that develop lung disease like human beings.

A defective gene in CF carries a code for CFTR protein regulating the movement of salt and water in and out of cells. An alteration of this protein is the cause of thick and sticky mucus that characterize the presence of CF.

Gene therapy is a replacement of a defective gene with one that is normal to allow it to play its natural value. The challenge of gene therapy is the limitations of replacing the defective gene. It is a long process the human body has 22 pairs of autosomal chromosomes, and CF is only in chromosome 7. It requires the use of vectors (gene delivery vehicles) that contain corrected gene. Replacing the defective gene in a cell is also not enough because CF affects many cells thus requires many vectors to get them to appropriate places.

Thymosin alpha 1(Tα1)

Tα1 is a synthetic version of the natural polypeptide that was isolated from thymus tissue which has a role in immunity. Tα1 corrects inflammation and also corrects genetic defects. Tα1 has a double benefit to CF patients. It reduces inflammation that CF causes improve activity, stability and maturity of CFTR.

Cystic fibrosis occurs due to a mutation in the genetic code of CFTR protein that regulates the activity of the chloride channel that balances water and salt in the lungs. The name of this mutation in CF is p.Phe508del and it reduces chloride permeability that might cause lung inflammation. Researchers on CF treatment found that complex pathogen mechanisms that cause it to require a therapeutic approach that will combine several drugs. There is no single drug to deal with multiple effects, but a study report on Tα1 shows it can correct defects of cells in human patients with p.Phe508del mutation.

The current study on Tα1 shows that it reduces inflammation and immune tolerance in vitro and cystic fibrosis mouse model. It also improves the stability of mutant CFTR. Further studies also show that Tα1 can rescue CFTR protein and rescue p.Phe508del-CFTR in human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells and mice in the study. Intravenous administration of Tα1corrects misfolded protein that occurs because of this mutation inhibiting cell ability to regulate the chlorine ions.

The researchers note that corrector activity of Tα1 is yet to get verification in human studies, but it might soon get approval for clinical trials because of cost efficiency and safety profile of Zadaxin in both adults and children. The studies will help to determine the possible pulmonary and extrapulmonary benefits in people with cystic fibrosis.

IS THERE A BETTER WAY OF MAKING A FLU VACCINE?

IS THERE A BETTER WAY OF MAKING A FLU VACCINE?

Cell.-based vaccine first began in the eggs, and it had similar issues to the standard vaccine in 2016 -2017season. Beginning in 2018, U.S developed a cell-based vaccine that scientists only grew in animal cells. It will still require the gathering of more analytical data at the end of flu season, but this vaccine might be the most effective than the originating egg vaccine because it does not have challenges of mutation.

It could in future be a much better way of making flu vaccine. It is also faster because it does not require the gathering of fresh eggs every season. Animal cells are useful to use for many seasons after freezing during the off-season and thwacking them when needed.

WHY CELL-BASED FLU VACCINE IS BETTER THAN STANDARD EGG-CELL SHOTS

Most of the flu shots developers grow them inside egg cells. Eggs provide a suitable home for replicating the viruses and simple to work with because they have been in use for many years. People with egg allergies get a different shot. Everyone else except this small subpopulation has been thinking that the production of the vaccines follows an acceptable method. The recent research suggests viruses that grow in the eggs undergo a crucial change that makes resulting vaccines less effective.

Human bodies identification of flu is based on a crucial part of a virus called hemagglutinin. HA isan antigen and the bit of the virus that immune cells can bind to. A vaccine trains the immune system to identify specific antigens by growing a virus inside the living cells, inactivating it and collecting antigens. The immune system becomes ready to fight the infection off if you contract a virus because these antigens are similar to those in the shot. You must rump up the defense further if the antigens are different as it allows a virus to have time for taking over the body.

HA mutates when the H3N2 strain of flu grows in eggs to allow better replication by the virus in its new environment. This method confirms that laboratories are producing flu vaccine base it on a mutated version of the virus. Later observation of the flu in circulation and comparing it to reference that developers used for vaccine might show like they got it right. Nonetheless, the reality is that a lab starts with a virus that is not the same to that which finally goes into the shot. Prediction of the strains might be right but the efficiency even at this time is 40-60 per cent.

The differences explain why the flu strains might mutate the same way in egg cells but H3N2 is often a predominant strain. The use mutations in H3N2 strain for vaccine explains situations like that of Australia having a vaccine with 10 per cent efficiency and an awful flu season.

Cell-based flu vaccine technology has been using for a while although many pharmaceutical companies are hesitant to change because a fundamental change in manufacturing vaccines is expensive. The demand is also still lower, but if it turns out to be a better vaccine, pharmaceutical companies will have a motivation to change to non-egg vaccine option.

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STEM CELLS?

WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF STEM CELLS?

TYPES OF STEM CELLS

1. Adult stem cells

The body of a person contains stems cells that develop throughout life. The body can use these stem cells each time it needs .they are also called somatic or tissue-specific stem cells, and they exist in the body from the time that an embryo develops.These cells are not in any specific state because of more specialization than the embryonic stems cells. The stay in this state until the body requires them for a particular purpose like replenishing muscle or skin cells.Adult stem cells might come from different parts of an adult body, but they are specific to a certain kind of body tissue. For instance, liver stem cells might regenerate liver tissue, and muscles stem cells can only regenerate muscle fibers.They cannot change and renew tomake different body tissue.

2.Embryonic stem cells

An embryo forms from the time that a sperm fertilizes an egg. An embryo takes the form of a ball of cells or Blastocyst around 3-5 days after fertilization. These are the most versatile stem cells as they can build any type of cell in the body.

The blastocyst has stem cells and later implants in the womb. Embryonic stem cells develop when a Blastocyst becomes 4-5 days old.Stem cells that scientists take from embryos are usually an extra embryo after in vitro fertilization.Doctors inan IVF clinic fertilize many eggs in a test tube to be sure that at least one will survive and then implant some eggs for a pregnancy to start.

Cells combine when a sperm successfully fertilizes an egg to form one cell called a zygote.A single-celled zygote becomes an embryo when it starts dividing by forming cells in twos such as 2, 4, 8and so on. When and before an embryo implants in the womb, itis called a Blastocyst that has a mass of 150-200 cells. A Blastocyst has these two part.

Embryonic cells can differentiate to more cell types than the adult stem cells.

3.Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)

MSCs come from connective tissue surrounding the organs of the body and other tissues. Scientists use MSCs to create new body tissues such as fat cells, cartilage, and bone.They might one be a solution to various health problems.

4.Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS)

These stem cells are artificial because scientists create them in a lab with skin and other tissue-specific cells. Their behavior is similar to the embryonic stem cells for them to enable users to develop a range of therapies. However, more research is still necessary despite their extensive use. Scientists grow iPS stem cells by first extracting samples from an embryo oradult tissue. They then place the harvested cells in a controlled culture where they divide and reproduce but without specializing further.

The name for stem cells that divide and reproduce in a controlled culture is a stem-cell line. Researchers have different purposes for managing and sharing stem-cell lines.They can even stimulate stem cells to specialize in a certain way by a process that is called directed differentiation. Reprogramming stem cells when creating iPSCs will involve genetic manipulation that might cause some differences that are not in the cells that already are embryonic.

WHAT ARE THE USES OF STEM CELLS?

WHAT ARE THE USES OF STEM CELLS?

Stem cells can serve different purposes, and all of them are essential. Many stem cells can with the right stimulation take the role of another type of cell and under the right conditions can regenerate damaged tissue. This potential might save lives and allow repairs necessary for healing after an injury or illness. Scientists have many possible uses for stem cells including:

1. Tissue regeneration

Tissue regeneration could be the essential use of the stem cells. Before doctors knew about this ability of the stem cells, patients who required a kidney transplant had to wait till they got a donor with compatible kidneys. Another example of regeneration ability is when doctors use stem cells they derive beneath a skin surface to make skin tissue anew. They can use the new tissue to repair a severe injury or burn by grafting it onto the damaged skin for a new one to grow.

2. Replacement of damaged cells and treatment

Some medical facilities have already successfully used stem cells to treat extensive burns to restore the blood system in patients with blood disorders like leukemia. Stem cells also may have a key to the replacement of lost cells in other devastating diseases that currently do not have sustainable cures. For instance, donated organs and tissues can replace damaged tissue. However, the need for transplantable tissues or organs outweighs the available supply by far.

Stem cells are a possible renewable resource of replacement tissues for treating diseases with proper directing to differentiate them into specific types of cells. You can use in this manner to treat diseases such as diabetes, Parkinson’s, stroke and heart conditions. It is an exciting prospect but has many significant hurdles that only years of intensive research can overcome.

3. Provide a resource to test new medical treatments

Stem cells provide a way of testing new medications for safety. Scientists use specialized cells that stem cell lines generate in large numbers to reduce the need for animal testing. Some kinds of cell lines are already in use for testing. A good example is the used of cancer lines to screen potential anti-tumor drugs.

Researchers are also testing ways in which doctors can one day use replacement cells and tissues for treating brain disease such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Parkinson’s disease occurs due to dame of the brain cells leading to uncontrollable movements. Stem cells are helping scientist to define a procedure for replenishing damage to the brain tissue. It might replace the brain cells that prevent uncontrolled muscle movements. Researchers are currently trying to differentiate embryonic cells into movement controlling cells thus treatments are promising.

4. Blood disease treatments

Doctors are now routinely using adult hematopoietic stem cells for treating diseases such as sickle cell anemia, leukemia, and other immunodeficiency problems. Hematopoietic stem cells occur in bone marrow and blood. The can produce all types of blood cells including those that fight disease or carry oxygen.

5.Studying development

Stem cells have clues that allow understanding of the way that complex organism develops from a fertilized egg. Scientists working in a lab can follow stem cells while they begin dividing to become increasingly specialized to make skin, brain, bone and other types of cell. Identifying signals mechanisms and signals that determine if stem cells choose to continue replicating itself or differentiating into a specialized or another kind of cell helps to learn the things that control normal development.

Some of the severe medical conditions like congenital disabilities and cancer occur due to an abnormal division and differentiation of the cell. A better understanding of the molecular and genetic controls of these processes might yield information to identify the way such diseases arise and new strategies for therapy.

DO WE NEED TO CONTINUE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH OR WILL ADULT STEM CELLS WORK JUST AS WELL?

DO WE NEED TO CONTINUE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH OR WILL ADULT STEM CELLS WORK JUST AS WELL?

Adult stem cells have been the most examined in humans and animal models. They do not court more controversy than embryonic cells but scientists question whether mature stem cells initially are from immature or another source of stem cells. Research has been going for many years as scientists attempt to determine whether embryonic and adult stem cells have similar capabilities. Studies consistently reveal new information and the hope is that therapeutic applications can develop from both sources.

REASONS TO CONTINUE EMBRYONIC STEM CELL RESEARCH

1.Potential for development Embryonic stem cells are more versatile and flexible than the adult stem cells. Embryonic stem cells potential for differentiation is far more significant because they can develop to almost all types of cells in on a human body. The number of cell types that adult stem cells can grow into is limited. Their potential is lower than that of embryonic cells. Newer studies are suggesting that adult stem cells might have greater plasticity than what has been in the limelight. It means that they might have the capacity to differentiate to a greater range of specialized types of cells. It might be encouraging, but it appears embryonic stem cells still got an advantage to separate more than the adult stem cells.

2.MultiplicationEmbryonic stem cells proof to be more viable because they divide and reproduce more after placement in a culture. Adult cells inthe similar environment do not multiply this readily. The level of difficulty varies between the two types. Embryonic stem cells are simple to grow in a laboratory, but adult stem cells do not develop as easily after isolation from the mature adult tissues. Stem cell replacement therapies require a large number of cells and difficulty in growing adult cells limits their use for treatment.

3. Effects on the recipient’s immune systemAdult stem cells have a distinct advantage for immune system because the process involves identifying, isolating, growing and transplanting patient’s cell. The immune system cannot reject cells because they already have compatibility with the person’s body. Embryonic stem cells carry a potential for rejection. A recipient should take strong immune-suppressing drugs that combat the rejection of new cells. It also puts patients at risk for microscopic diseases that might be present in transplanted cells and other conditions that might be present in a hospital environment.

4. A possibility of DNA mutationsAdult stem cells are more likely to gain abnormalities from DNA mutations that might occur due to various factors. Chances that’young’ embryonic stem will carry mutations are lesser. Their young nature also enables them to regenerate quickly than the adult stem cells. 5.Ethics

Adult stem cells come from adult tissues with consent from the patients. They have minimal if any ethical dilemma because doctors inform patients about the procedure. Embryonic stem cells trigger enormous debate because the harvesters destruct an embryo is cell extraction. Embryo destruction has become part of abortion debate creating massive controversy between the politicians, religious leaders and public.

DO FEMALE ATHLETES HAVE MORE TROUBLE GETTING PREGNANT LATER ON?

DO FEMALE ATHLETES HAVE MORE TROUBLE GETTING PREGNANT LATER ON?

WHAT CAUSES FEMALE ATHLETES TO HAVE TROUBLE GETTING PREGNANT

These are the issues that make it difficult for women of normal weight to get pregnant if they engage in extensive exercises.

1. Reduced fat cells

When preparing to get pregnant or compete in athletics, the body requires more fat stores to be in an optimal range. This might be the reason when lean women who engage in vigorous exercise too much take longer to conceive. About five hours of exercising a week are too much intense exercise should only take four minutes two to three times a week. This moment of work out for a female athlete is too short. They must work out extremely hard and for a longer time to improve endurance and be at the top shape to compete. Running on a treadmill for just an hour five days of the week makes it harder to conceive yet some athletes run for more than this period.

2. Disturbance of the monthly exercise

It has been clear for long that strenuous exercise may cause disturbances to the monthly cycle causing lack of ovulation and menses. It also caused fertility problems. These issues are common among the competitive female athletes and severe in marathon runners. A study by an associate professor of epidemiology at Boston University School of Public Health, Lauren Wise suggests that high-intensity exercise may also disturb implantation. Implantation takes place when a fertilized egg attaches itself to the uterus.

3. Energy deficit

An energy deficit occurs when the energy intake does not meet the requirements .metabolism of the stored energy in the form of body fat, glycogen and protein accounts for the deficit. The reproduction system is extremely sensitive to energy deficit, and it might not perform optimally to allow conception. It might be a good reason because the body attempts to conserve energy by shutting down some systems like the reproduction.

Reaction to energy deficit works like the way female bodies were acting during ancient age during a famine. The reproductive system would turn off after walking for long to gather bare minimum calories. The turning helped in survival by preventing reproduction until the body accesses adequate uninterrupted energy as it indicates there are enough resources for feeding children.

Exercises among women have much benefits to overall health, well-being and competition fitness for professional athletes. The development of an energy deficiency because of inadequate energy intake to compensate for the exercise energy expenditure and this might lead to menstrual dysfunction. It is now clear that stress of the exercise does not cause reproductive dysfunction but an attempt of conserving energy. Metabolic adaptations reacting to an energy deficiency alter a normal production and reproduction hormones at all the levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis.

Estrogen and progesterone concentrations decline as a reaction to energy deficiency leading to a spectrum of exercise associated with menstrual disturbance (EAMD). A spectrum of EAMD includes:

    • Severe menstrual disturbances
    • Oligomenorrhea
    • Amenorrhea

You can detect EAMD spectrum by lack of menses for months, at least three. Long, inconsistent cycles of 36-90 days are also a sign of EAMD.