Enroll for a phlebotomy training program

Phlebotomy courses are short-term programs that take less than a year. Completion time in some schools only takes two weeks. The trainees learn basic skills to apply as a phlebotomist such as:

  • Drawing blood in various ways, techniques, and equipment
  • Basic lab safety, legal and patient interaction subjects
  • Hands-on practice in labs and hospitals

Most credible phlebotomy training programs take 4-8 months (1-2 semesters).

 Obtain a certificate and license

Certification after a phlebotomy training program is necessary even if it might not be a legal requirement to start practicing in some states. The reality on the field is that many employers still ask for certification before hiring phlebotomists. Advance certification also allows new trainees to broaden the range of activities they can perform on a daily basis and provide an opportunity to earn a higher salary. Phlebotomy certification can come from a variety of organizations, but there are some with more clout. For instance, these are the leading providers of certification in the United States.

  • American Medical Technologists (AMT)
  • National Health career Association (NHA)
  • American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP)

Certification requires the applicants to take an exam comprising of a theory multiple choice and practical component. This exam has become a part of most training programs that students sit for during final stages of the course. Training and certification might take around 12 months, but most of the time it does not take more than ten months.

Getting employment

After completing the education, training and certification steps, it is time for a phlebotomist to take the crucial action of seeking employment. It will be unreasonable to train and get a license but fail to practice the skills. Phlebotomists should be active in job search from the beginning by offering to work at hospitals or labs. It helps to get the attention of potential employers. Rising demand for phlebotomy technicians is favoring new trainees as recruiters are likely to top approach them during training of certification.

It is essential to start making friends among the staff and HR from the first days of practice at a hospital because they will keep you informed about employment opportunities. Searching or a phlebotomy technician job should not be the last minute act because it is not an extremely engaging training.



Origins and Background of Nurse Week

A movement to give nurses a day or a week to honor their role began in the early 1950s, but it was a quiet affair. American Nurses Association (ANA) gave it limelight in 1993 after officially designating May 6-12 as permanent dates for nurses week. The effort to establish a formal period for recognition of nurses has gone through several variations including a presidential proclamation by President Richard Nixon in 1974 designated a week in February to commemorate national nurse week. His announcement was a follow-up to that by an international council of nurses.

Nurses’ week started with a nurse day. In 1953 an official at the United States Department of health sent a proposal to President Eisenhower asking him to proclaim a “Nurses Day” the following year in October. The President did not fulfill the request, but nurses observed a National Nurse Week on October 11-16 in 1954. October 1954 was also the 100th anniversary of Nightingale’s Crimea mission. Nurses observed the 100 year anniversary of a ground-breaking mission by Nightingale to provide medical care to fighters in the Crimean war. Her work at Crimea initiated reforms in the sanitary practices in UK and other places.

U.S Congress representative Frances P. Bolton introduces a bill to establish a permanent National Nurse week in 1955 after the first nurse week celebration in 1954. The bill and an attempt to revive it in 1972 failed.

1n 1978, the New Jersey Governor at that time Brendon Byrne declared May 6 to be a Nurses Day. By 1982 ANA board of directors gave a formal acknowledgement to May 6 as the National Nurses Day. The proclamation to proclaim May 6, 1982, as the “National Recognition Day for Nurses” got the Presidential sign from President Ronald Reagan. The extension of the celebration to a week took place in 1990 with the ANA Board of Directors designating May 6-12 as the permanent dates for observing nurses week in 1994 and other subsequent years.

Wednesday of every National nurses’ week got a designation to be a National School Nurse Day in 2003. A celebration of Nurses Week has become an annual affair since then to recognize that nurses are essential constituencies of health professionals and make up the collective face healthcare.

Nurses and other people can celebrate a national nurses’ week in many ways. Nurses have more interest in the observance and should take time for reflecting and celebrating their profession. Those who are not in the trade know a nurse who is close to them, and they should take time to acknowledge the role they play in healthcare.



End of the Antibiotic Era.
The findings are worrying because they reveal a resistance to the common bacteria is at alarming levels in various parts of the world. Some of them are already running out of treatment options for common infections. For instance, the resistance carbapenem antibiotics that help to fight bacteria that cause hospital-acquired infections(HAIs) such as pneumonia or infections to newborn babies has spread to the entire globe.

1. Wrong or overuse of antibiotics
Antibiotic use at any time and setting makes bacteria to experience biological pressure and gradually develops resistance. It is still necessary to use antibiotics for treatment or prevention nut the problem occurs because of wrong or misuse. The inappropriate use promotes unnecessary antibiotic resistance.

2. Overreliance on same antibiotics
Manufacturing of new typed of drugs is expensive, and as a result, there is much reliance on the same types of medicines for years. The danger is that it gives bacteria more chance to evolve and develop resistance. Also, it causes new infections that are resistant to an available antibiotic such as the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Similarly, many people take it for granted that antibiotics will clear some infections such as bacterial pneumonia, gonorrhoea and tonsillitis yet they have become untreatable.

3. Wrong or excessive antibiotic use on animals
Those who rear or treat food-producing animals play a crucial role in promoting drug resistance by incorrect or excessive administering of antibiotics. Resistant bacteria develop in the animals and transmit to humans brings through the food from animals.


An antibiotic era coming to an end means the significant development of resistant organisms called superbugs. These are a lab concern and global threat because they are already responsible for life-threatening infections and increased death tolls.

These infections are a headache to healthcare providers as they are aggravating at a high rate in volatile situations such as during famine, natural disaster, violence and civil unrest. The focus is mostly on the calamity, and medics take long to determine to identify spreading of superbugs. The environment at those moments is also not right to manage the spreading.

World health organization has already given a warning that that post-antibiotic era will cause frequent infections and even small injuries might cause death if there is no action to halt antibiotic resistance. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are now causing more deaths more deaths worldwide even in developed countries. For instance, 63,000 patients die every year due to hospital-acquired bacterial infections in the United States. Approximately 25,000 patients die every year due to multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections in Europe. Many other counties are facing a heavy burden of S. Aureus infections while MRSA strains are spreading globally at a rapid pace.

Estimated costs of drug multi-drug resistant bacterial infections might increase healthcare costs as well as productivity losses. Many companies will continue distributing antibiotics that might no longer help patients to heal. Patients who do recover will require another one or more prescriptions mostly with a higher dose.

Further readmission of antibiotics from an initial cycle accelerates the resistance to mechanisms. Evidence shows that increasing antibiotic use is more likely to cause positive association with higher prevalence of the resistant microorganisms and it is the reason why patients with a history of using medicine in this class are more likely to develop resistance.




Immunotherapeutics is another promising intervention that involves the use of molecules that can boost the host immune system to prevent the disease at infection prone times. A granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) called Pegfilgrastim is one of the most successful immunotherapeutic interventions in human health for inducing neutrophil production in chemotherapeutic patients experiencing low neutrophil counts.

Maintaining an appropriate neutrophil number in blood enables the immune system to prevent infections. Immunotherapeutics also helps to boost the immune system in cattle and reduce the incidence of mastitis when exploited for agricultural purpose. Users administer pegbovigrastim, a bovine G-CSF to cattle before parturition.

An advantage of immunotherapeutics as an alternative to antibiotics is that they boost the immune system and prevent infectious diseases. A disadvantage is that they require precise timing which is extremely challenging for on-farm applications.


Biotics that can be pro-pre- or synbiotics modulate gut microbial community towards health, and they demonstrate inconsistent efficacy. Probiotics are living organisms or good bacteria for international feeding to a host Probiotics are molecular precursors that expand the presence of existing beneficial gut microbiota of a host. Synbiotics are combination prebiotics and probiotics. The purpose of this biotics is to affect the gut microbiota in a manner that improves health.

The gut microbial community of mammals’ complex consortium comprises over 500 different bacterial species. The current challenge for researchers is lack of knowledge for a precise mechanism on the contribution of each member to the health of a host. An absence of this knowledge contributes to variable results. Modulating the gut microbial community has become an alternative to the antibiotics. An investigation of the way gut bacterial interacts with one another and with the animal hosts is now an active area of research globally.

Advantages of the above approaches are that the only target the disease-causing bacterium for treatment and not other members of the beneficial microbial. They act differently from most antibiotics that attack the pathogen target together with the commensal bacteria. More development for these specific approaches by alternatives to antibiotics methods is still ongoing to improve potency, reliability, and deliverability.

Solutions to antibiotic-resistance are multifaceted because antibiotics play varying roles and one alternative cannot replace their function. Researchers need to use methods such as vaccines, immunotherapeutics and gut microbiota modulation as methods of treating and preventing illnesses.



Experts recommend washing hands with soap and water or alcohol-based sanitizer as one of the ways to prevent bacterial infection. The need for protection against bacterial infections is a reason why antibacterial cleaning products such as lotions and soaps have been in use. The danger is that antibacterial soaps have a potential to create antibiotic-resistant bacteria building up the resistance of the superbugs.

How Antibacterial Lotions, Soaps and Cleaning Products Create a Superbug

Heavy use of antibiotics causes resistance that generates from s small subset of the bacterial population with a random mutation that allows its survival for chemical exposure. Frequent use if the chemical will kill other bacterial, but this subset will continue to increase. Regular use can make the chemical to become useless against the strain of bacteria if it happens on a broad scale.

It is currently a massive challenge in medicine to extend that world health organization is calling it a threat to global health security. Some bacteria species (mostly MRSA) have adopted resistance to various drugs complicating the efforts for controlling and treating infections while they spread. Health officials say that there is a need for further research before a conclusion that triclosan is the increasing resistance although many studies have been hinting at the possibility.

The concern about superbugs revolves around chemical ingredient called triclosan that is present in most of the antibacterial products. Triclosan is present in much antibacterial soap, cleansers but most hand sanitizers do not include it. Recent studies found that triclosan may alter the functioning of hormones in the body that according to Federal Drug Administration might also contribute to the development of superbugs leading to bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Triclosan is not an essential ingredient for many products and FDA as well as Environments Protection Agency is reviewing it.

Many concerns exist that use of triclosan might increase the risk of generating drug-generating resistant bacteria after documentation that bacteria that usually stays on the skin can also become resistant to triclosan. Triclosan-resistant bacteria typically have mutations in the proteins called enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductases or ENRs. ENRs are essential for the biosynthesis of cell membranes and also targets for any other clinical antibiotic drugs such as Isoniazid. Continued exposure of bacteria populations to triclosan especially for environmental accumulation makes them develop mutations in their ENRs for them survive exposure.

The significant public health concern is that these ENR mutations can make these bacteria to start resisting other prescription antibiotics. If this is the situation, it might be crucial to limit the use of triclosan to the products where is hugely useful.

How Dangerous Are Antibacterial Lotions, Soaps and Cleaning Products

Antibacterial agents are widely non-toxic when you use them on external surfaces if you appropriate levels of concentrations. The rapid killing effect does not allow the creation of resistant bacteria. Resistance occurs after long-term use of the products at low-level concentrations which is a condition that happens with the use of residue-producing agents such as triclocarban and triclosan.

It was not until recently that it became clear that agents affect a specific process in bacteria. They believe in the past was that it could not allow the emergence of resistant bacteria. Recent lab evidence showed that triclosan inhibits a particular step in forming bacterial lipids in cell wall structure.

Some scientists believe that the laboratory conditions for research study do not represent happenings in the real world. Other studies show that not all antibacterial lotions, soaps and cleaning products have the detectable development of resistance but it is mostly for products that have been in use for a short time.

However, the constant use of these agents disrupts bacteria including the harmless but leaves some residual. A shift in bacterial populations creates space for diseases causing bacteria to enter, establish infection and resist.



Ear wax can impact if it builds up too much in the ear canal which is a sign that something is not right. The ears can self-clean and do not need extra cleaning for many people. Earwax buildup and blockage usually happen due to using of items like bobby pins or cotton swabs in an attempt to clean the ears. It shows the act pushed ear wax farther into the ears and it might even cause injury to the ear. Excess ear wax if untreated might worsen the symptoms of impaction to worsen. These symptoms may include ear irritation, ringing sound in the ears, dizziness and hearing loss.

 Dry or dark earwax

Earwax that starts to feel thicker, drier and darkens more than usual is likely to be a sign of ageing. Earwax tends to become flakier and drier as people grow older.

 Stickiness and dryness

Everyone has either a sticky or dry cerumen with both types providing clues about the genetic ancestry. Genetics study shows that most of the people with dry waxed are from an Asian descent while Africans or European people have wet or sticky wax. Authors of this study say that dryness of stickiness of earwax is a genetic adaptation to the climate in which the ancestors were living.

5. Watery with a greening tint

Watery and greening earwax could be a sign of an ear infection, but a doctor has to start by determining if the person has been sweating a lot. Perspiration that leaks down into the ear and mixes with water can cause a greenish or dark yellow color. An absence of sweat shows that the ear could be developing an infection.

 Strong odor

Odor on the ear wax is a symptom showing that the middle section of the ear might be having an infection or damaged. Such happenings might cause many signs that doctors collectively call chronic otitis media. One of the symptoms is that the ear might start emitting foul-smelling drainage. Damage in the middle ear might cause these symptoms:

    • Balancing problems
    • Ringing in the ears
    • A sensation that the ear is blocked or full Visiting an ear specialist is essential after noticing the abovesigns.

Ear wax trickles or leaks out Infections or tears inside the eardrum might lead to a growth of abnormal skin called cholesteatoma. This skin is a cyst-like structure causing debris from the ear to fill up the ear canal. Rather than the usually imperceptible discharge, ear gunk might come out in a clump or noticeable trickle. Pressure and pain in the ear is also a symptom of cholesteatoma.

No earwax If earwax vanishes, it is a sign that the body is not making any more. It is also a small chance that there could be a slight chance of having a rare condition called keratitis obturans that many do not know or understand. It develops when wax does not get out gradually on its own as the norm but builds inside the ear until it becomes a hard plug. If this is happening in your ear, it is likely to cause other symptoms such as fullness and pain.



1.Fruity odor on the breath

It is not always that morning breath is unpleasant, but it signals the existence of a problem if it is persistently sweet or fruity. A fruity smell on the breath is not something to ignore as it might be an indication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) a metabolic condition with a potential to become life-threatening and might progress as a complication of uncontrolled diabetes.

2. Bad smell on the skin

There is a difference between a normal body odor and that which occurs when there is an infection on the surface. The difference lies in the strength of smell. Skin infections can be a cause putrid odor from byproducts of bacterial growth. A dying tissue, gangrene causes one of the incredibly offensive odors as it smells like rotten meat.

3. Smellier than usual sweat

People with hyperthyroidism may sweat excessively the point of an increased classic BO. An overactive thyroid might cause extra sweat which might be difficult to notice, but the increased scent of the bacteria will be extra smelly.

4. Bad breath after sickness

Bad breath after suffering from an infection such as a camera is s sign that it is lingering on. Chronic bad breath could be a sign of bacterial overgrowth in the gums. It might also be an acute or chronic infection of the sinus. A course of antibiotics might be necessary to clear this problem. Consulting a doctor about the right medication is the best course of action.

5. Vaginal odor

Every woman has her odor,and there is no need to start panicking because of scent from the vulva. A reason to worry and take note is when the smell is new. A change in odor that persists deserves the attention an examination by a gynecologist who should be able to determine if there is an infection and diagnose the precise type. A woman should avoid using products like scents and perfumes to cover up natural odors because they might irritate.

A strong or fishy smell also deserves a check-up by a doctor. The fishy odor might be a sign of bacterial vaginosis. BV occurs as a result of a change in a vaginal bacterial community that might increase odor and discharge, especially after sexual activity. BV requires treatment as soon as possible to prevent more severe gynecological issues.

6 Strongly smelling pee

Poor gut health is the most likely cause of stronger than the usual smell from the urine. It is like similar occurrence in bad breath or stinky sweat. The pungent smell in the urine is as a result of toxins finding their way out of the body.The body should not stink if you practice good hygiene. A stronger than usual smell from nowhere should get the attention of a doctor. It might be a sign that the body has lost the natural balance to fight odors or is a sign of an STI or another disease.



A US-based medical lab and research company is experimenting with a printing intestinal tissue and liver to assist with studying organs in the vitro and with drug development for some diseases. The company has even presented pre-clinical data for the functionality of liver tissue in the program for a condition that impedes the ability of the body to metabolize amino acid tyrosine because of an enzyme deficiency. The disease is called type 1 tyrosinemia.

2.Tissue engineering

A new significant technological breakthrough can ride on 3D printing technology to eliminate the needs for human organ transplants. Printing in 3D works by ‘telling, a computer to apply layer upon layer of particular materials (mostly metal powders or plastic) to mold them into one layer a time till building of a final product such as scoliosis brace or sunglasses. Medical technology now harnesses this skill to build tiny organs (organoids) using a similar technique but to use stem cells as a production material. The newly build organoids will in future have a capacity to grow in the body of a sick person and take over the functions of a failing organic organ such as a liver or kidney.

3. 3D-printed skin for burn victims

The technological breakthrough in 3D printing might sound unbelievable, but it is particularly immense. Burn victims for many years had limited options for healing a disfigured skin. Skin grafts are painful, and they produce terrible aesthetics, so hydrotherapy solutions provide limited results. Researchers in Spain have now taken to using 3D printing layer –upon-layer approach to developing a bioprinter prototype for producing human skin. Researchers printed about 100 square centimeters of the human skin while working with biological ink in approximately half an hour. This technology has brought endless life-changing implications for the burn victims.

4. Customizing Prosthetics

Production of customized prosthetic limbs to suit and fit the wearer isnot possible with 3D printing. It has been common for amputees to wait for many weeks or months before they receive prosthetics through a traditional procedure. The use of 3D printing i9nmedicine speeds up this process and creates products that are much cheaper but still offer patients the same functionality as the conventional prosthetics. The lower price point of these products makes their application also to suit children who quickly outgrow prosthetic limbs and require larger replacements. 3D printing also allows the design of prosthetics that directly correspond to the needs of a patient. For instance, some designers create a system allowing patients to model prosthetic on their limbs. Scanning enables them to create a fit that is more natural. Researchers are utilizing 3D printing to design prosthetic sockets that are more comfortable.

5. Printing of surgical instruments

It is now simpler to produce sterile surgical instruments such as scalpel handles, forceps, hemostats and clamps with 3D printers.It helps to create customized tools such as those used in origami, an ancient Japanese practice. 3D printing allows making or precise and tiny instruments that surgeons can use to operate on the small areas without unnecessary damage to the adjacent patient. A significant benefit of producing a surgical instrument with 3D printing is that it lowers the cost of production.The medical world will benefit much from 3D printing because it allows precision, speed and a slash in production cost of organs, devices as well as treatment.



2. A holistic approach to a problem

TCM considers everything in the body to have interconnection and its healing path is holistic. Its practitioners believe in administering holistic healing from:oMicro(atomic) to the macro(universe Environment to the human body Top to bottom i nnside and out of Organ to organ Physical to emotional connection Indeed all these components have a relationship, and any knowledgeable TCM doctor does not rule out these factors.

3. Variety of treatment methods

TCM techniques involve a variety of ways to treat various disorders or diseases. It is more of personalized treatment and prescription according to individual needs as TCM practice believes every person has a unique constitution and makeup. It presents a choice of acupuncture, reflexology, massage therapy, cupping or Tai Chi among others to suit individual needs. You can use the method to approach the problem from various angles with the adherence to TCM foundational theories as for the only rule.

4. Continued development and research

Chinese medicine techniques have been in place for long, but development and research are ever on-going. The never-ending growth makes TCM more exciting as it keeps discovering new methods, formulas, and technology. TCM is also becoming more inter-disciplinary by adding some knowledge from western medicine, naturopathy, physiotherapy, and chiropractic among others into its toolkit. The rule even when it accommodates new knowledge is that the practice must identify with its roots and foundational theories.


I. Lack of evidence-based practice

TCM techniques fall under alternative medicines that have been a subject of much studying and focus deems them safe. Still, there are others that have not been getting much study hence there is minimal evidence to support their effectiveness. The fact that medicine or a technique is natural does not guarantee its safety. Some have toxic minerals that can harm some people. It is not like going for a method or a product in wm whereby practitioners prescribe something that has gone through extensive testing to authenticate its safety.

II. Practitioners with different ideas

Practitioners who treat with traditional Chinese medicine techniques get training from experts with different school of thought because it of the long history and newer developments .some might only know of the traditional practices. They are keen about sticking to the roots up to the end without changing or incorporating new knowledge. Another group has been moving from the classic formula using western medicine as the foundational knowledge while using the TCM treatment modalities.

III. Difficulty in finding personalized service

Since there is a plethora of ways for diagnosing and treating patients, they might have problems to see a practitioner who suite individual needs. For instance,massage or acupuncture might be the way to heal a condition but there are different ways that therapists use to attain the purpose. It might only be that just a few therapists can provide the service in the way that you like. The success of the techniques also requires much cooperation between a patient and a therapist.




There is no complete cure for the inflammation, but a choice of appropriate medical treatment keeps the disease in remission.Surgical removal of the colon (colectomy) is said to be a potential cure, but this should be a last resort, and still, it might cause surgical complications in some patients. Treatment by medication or another way will differ slightly depending on the extent of infection and goals a physician intends to achieve.

Induction therapy

Drug treatment intends to reduce the inflammation in the gut to relieve the symptoms, treat active flare of an IBD and induce remission to comfort the patient. The approach is what some call induction therapy.

Keep you well therapy

A doctor will determine when the condition is under control and continue to prescribe medicine to maintain remission and prevent recurrence of active disease. This is the maintenance therapy phase. These are long-term treatments to take even when there are no symptoms, and everything is well. Maintenance medications might differ from the induction therapies although some of them can be long-term for the patient to take them as maintenance treatment. The intention of the therapies keeps someone weld hence their name.


A doctor prescribes medicine that will reduce inflammation that triggers the signs and symptoms. The drugs in the best cases lead to symptom relief, long-term remission and reduce the risk of complications.

Anti-inflammatory drugs

The first Step to treat IBD is to by administering anti-inflammatory drugs depending on the affected area of the colon. These drugs include aminosalicylates and corticosteroids.

Immune system suppressor

These are drugs that function in various ways to suppress an immune response causing the release of chemicals that induce inflammation in the intestinal lining. Some people need a combination of drugs because one is not enough to suppress the release of inflammation-causing chemicals. Azathioprine, methotrexate, and cyclosporine are some of the immunosuppressant drugs.