Staff nursing

The primary job for staff nurses is to handle patient management and recovery. They work to assist people to recover from illness and injuries. Their reports guide doctors about the condition of a new arrival to a hospital because staff nursing involves receiving patients. It is at this time that these nurses assess the status of a patient, takes vitals and reports it to doctors for a thorough assessment.

Working a hospital reception or emergency room is hectic, and staff nurses are an area for those who are ready to work for long hours. Many health care facilities cannot function without their contribution, and it is the reason why they receive decent salaries.

Staff nursing entails working under orders of a doctor and act as advocates for the patients when they are undergoing important procedures like surgery. Staff nurses also help doctors to perform diagnostic testing. They can also administer medication and injections or other processes that help to reduce the suffering of the patients much as possible. Although most staff nurses work in hospitals or other medical facilities, their responsibilities might involve travelling to community sites or homes of patients.



Employers hire staff nurses on a long-term contract that includes a salary and benefits that they will receive every month during the deal. The pay usually depends on the level and experience of a nurse with incremental raises. Travel nurses get an opportunity to negotiate their pay for every new contract. Those who possess negotiating skills can gain higher pay packages than most of the staff nurses including those with many years of experience. Travel nurses can earn pay that ranges between $1300 and $2300 a week. With such earnings, the travel nurses can make more than $100,000 per an amount that staff nurses are unlikely to get.

Travel nursing suits individuals who want to choose where they will work and period they will serve. It is an excellent benefit for nurses who do not want to work at the same place for a long time and cherish opportunities to take frequent tome offs.



.Practice resilience

Resilience is an ability to quickly overcome challenges and deal with them efficiently to promptly move forward in life. Building positive beliefs in nursing abilities helps emotions. A great way to build resilience is by increasing confidence in nursing abilities including a capacity to respond and deal with new job environments. Resilience increases an ability to perform well under pressure and improves the way of viewing life as well as its challenges.

.Express feelings safely

Find a way of expressing the feelings from work experiences such as recording them in a notebook. It helps to organize thoughts and determine solutions, especially for the most stressful situations. You can invent a way of releasing the frustrations such as drawing claiming images, creating memes or sharing them with colleagues. Pent-up frustrations hurt within and it is essential to find a way of releasing them.

.Find a mentor

A mentor especially an experienced nurse gives you a positive role model you can reach out for guidance. A mentor helps you to manage work demands and hopefully help to avoid burnout. A mentor can help to recognize emotions and express them in a proper manner that reduces emotional tension.

.Practice deep breathing exercises

Deep breathing is an effective and proven coping skill. They help to relieve anxiety and emotional stress, improve mood and allow disengaging from things that are beyond control. Extra oxygen after deep breathing helps to relieve tension and provide essential feel-good endorphins. Deep breath has also proven to be effective in reducing stress and rejuvenating the mood. It is a simple exercise for a nurse to practice without the need to move away from the workplace.




Extra attention might not cool down all the angry patients and the right action to determine the cause of anger. For example, a patients’ anger might be stemming from anxiety about upcoming procedures. A reassurance that the doctors will take his concerns seriously and an explanation about its importance in recovery will calm down the person: speaking to the appropriate person who can solve administrative issues such as waiting too long for a healthcare provider makes the patient notice that concern and stop getting angry.

2.Maintaining calmness

A professional thing when a patient gets angry and verbally abusive is to stay calm. Healthcare professionals should remain calm until the patient stops the verbal barrage. It is essential to keep quiet after confrontation by a patient who for instance is trying to avoid a procedure because justifying or defending an action will only worsen things. Identify the reasons behind the verbal outburst when by questioning the person respectfully to determine fears. A patient in an irrational state will not listen or comprehend the explanation buy a nurse or a doctor. The right approaches to wait till the persons stop speaking and become ready to hear.

5.Communicate efficiently

Communication is an essential aspect of nursing and medical profession. Patients or their families deserve to get honest information regarding care and treatment. You should use short, simple statements to respond to the concerns that are making them angry. It is simpler to sort out issues that are causing anger by communication. Patients appreciate when someone is available to address their requirements and responds conclusively. Providing information that the concerns will reach someone who has the responsibility to address them is also a way of communicating to the angry, and they are less upset when they know their complaints will reach the right person.

4.Avoid arguments

Avoiding an argument does not mean that it curtails on the right to voice an opinion. A professional way to state the points is to wait for an appropriate opportunity to prevent a back and forth exchange with a patient. Presenting explanations when the other side is listening will solve the issue quickly. A caregiver should truthful about everything without an attitude that everything should proceed in a certain manner without regard for others. Sometimes the patient or family wants involvement in decision making and on some occasions they could be right.

5.Apologize for inconveniences

It is right to accept and apologize for things that might have gone wrong. An apology will reduce the tension and restore the faith in health care due to honesty in owning up to a mistake.

6.Set boundaries

It might be necessary to establish a boundary if the anger escalates to a point where the patient is making unreasonable demands threatens to assault or breaches security. At such moment, a nurse should stop engaging the patient and call security personnel. Angry people can use inappropriate language, but a nurse, a doctor or anyone in the healthcare field should maintain dignity by responding to inappropriate language.



Some users believe that it is something that each nurse should have on the phone. Merck manual has an excellent interface, offline use, and home user version. Merck Manual users do not have to put up with ads or buy additional functionality to make useful. A wide variety of information is at the fingertips after downloading.

.Nurse Pocket Guide

Nurses pocket guide in the form of an app has frequent updates with fresh information on diagnosis and intervention. The free nursing pocket guide that is available on Google Play and iTunes has a diagnosis listing that includes:

  • Related factors
  • Defining characteristics
  • Prioritized actions/interventions
  • NIC/NOC classifications
  • Documentation of guidelines

.Nursing Central

Nursing central app available on iOS and Android devices has won an award for providing lots of customers satisfying information drug and disease. The details help students and practicing nurses to work more efficiently courtesy of detailed information on diseases, testing, medicine, and procedure while on the move. Users like it because all the necessary references are available. Nursing central has a great search that can pull up an item in all references.

.Diseases Dictionary

Diseases dictionary is a free Android and iOS app offering an extensive list of illnesses and conditions that nurses are likely to encounter. The list also includes symptoms and treatments. Users can type symptoms, and a list of various possible diseases appears. Diseases dictionary provides comprehensive information on dealing with symptoms, preventing the disease and improving knowledge on the diseases. It has a rating of 4.3/5 on Google Play Store that is extremely fantastic considering that it is a free app.

.Nurse First

This is an app that lives up to its claims of putting the needs of nurses first. Nurses can find daily tips, giveaways, fun facts, vine and quotes for instant downloading. It has a rating of glorious 4.7/5 making it a must-have app for the nurses.

.Epocrates RX

Epocrates RX is a free app available in Android and iOS focusing on direct patient care. It is an ad-free app where nurses can find information on thousands of drugs. They can also use up to 30 medications at once to check for drug compatibility. The excellent functionality of Epocrates RX a must –have app for many medical professionals from various spheres including nursing.

.MedPage Today

MedPage Today is a go-to app for the latest developments in the medical world. It is a leading source for professionals to find breaking news in medicine. MedPage Today has daily coverage of more than 30 specialties, annual coverage of over 60 meetings and symposia as well as continuing education credits. It is an App that provides all the medical news in one place.

.Nursing Reference Center

Nursing Reference Center is a place for nurses to learn more nursing skills by reading relevant clinical resources, directly at the point of care and most recent clinical evidence from full-text books. It is free, but users must get an access key. Other free nursing apps for nurses are IV Drip Rate Calculator, IV Infusion Calculator, and intensive care medicine. Nurses looking for a lightered break from the stressful nursing work can get the nursing jokes app on android to find humor that takes them through long shifts.



You will obtain the best results by applying an ice pack on the affected section to soothe the pores before putting the toothpaste. Apply the toothpaste to pimples in small amounts and allow it to stay for around 30 minutes before rinsing.

Green tea

Green tea has various health benefits, and these include an ability to fight acne. Green tea has a potent antimicrobial property that helps to heal acne within a short time. Tea works well for the skin, and it even contains antioxidant compounds that slow down damage by free radicals and premature aging of the skin. You lay a cool green tea bag on an affected area to eliminate acne or use a cold cup as a face wash.


Aspirin is an efficient acne remedy because of its salicylic acid content. The acidic properties can dry pimples and quickly tone down inflammation making it a highly effective overnight remedy for acne. You will gain the full benefits by mashing up aspirin and mixing it with a little amount of water. Mix them until they form a paste that you will apply on the acne spots and leave it to stay overnight. You might need to rinse the paste after a few minutes if your skin is sensitive to prevent discomfort.

 Lemon juice

Lemon juice contains vitamin C and acidic properties that are essential in fighting the bacteria that causes acne. The best way to use it as a home remedy for acne is to use natural and fresh lemon juice. The commercial juices packed in bottles contain preservatives and might cause harm than benefit to the skin. These are the two options that you can use as an acne home remedy.

i. lemon juice and cinnamon powder Mix a tablespoon of lemon juice with one cinnamon powder teaspoon to form a paste. Apply the paste to the affected area and leave it until morning. Wash the face with lukewarm water when cleaning the paste. This option is for those people without sensitive skin.

ii. Swab the skin Dip a clean cotton swab in fresh lemon juice and use it to dab the affected areas. Leave the juice to stay overnight and wash it off with lukewarm water in the morning.


Garlic has antiseptic properties that attack the bacteria that invade the skin. Additionally, they have natural components including sulfur that can quickly heal acne. Cut garlic it into two to allow direct rubbing of the juice on to the pimples. Let it stay on the pimples for five minutes and wash it lukewarm water. You can repeat the action many times as you desire if garlic juice does not cause signs of sensitivity.

 Regular exfoliating

Exfoliating is a process of removing a top layer of the dead skin cells. You can exfoliate mechanically using a scrub or brush to remove the cells physically. Exfoliating removes the skin cells that clog up pores and contribute to the formation of acne and also improve other acne treatments by allowing deeper penetration.

Here is the process of a home scrub

a.Mix equal parts of coconut oil and sugar or salt

b.Scrub the skin with this mixture and rinse it well

c.Exfoliate at least once daily

Acne is a problem usually occurs because of underlying problems. Complement home remedies to get rid of acne overnight with lifestyle changes. Eat a healthy non-fatty diet, exercise, eliminate stress and consult a dermatologist if the acne becomes severe.



1. In-depth examination

Phenomenology is conducive to discovery of information and development essential nursing knowledge to the profession due to nursing involvement in the examination of phenomena within the contextual healthcare framework. The phenomenological approach has increasingly become a method for nursing research studies as it comprises data collection tools like open-ended questions, observational cues that are appropriate for nursing research practices as well and methodologies. Phenomenology is also extremely useful to qualitative nurse researchers because it has the potential to be an efficient vehicle for illumination and clarification of fundamental issues in the healthcare sector.

The science of nursing deals with holistic treatment. Many nurses recognize the significance of experiences by individuals and support them to control their health and well-being. Phenomenology, as based on this understanding, plays a pivotal role in the nursing profession since it values the experience of individuals, principles, and modalities of the holistic healing into their daily life and clinical practice.

2. Individualized approach

Nurses usually relate to the phenomenological approach because it values an individual experience and they may have some of the necessary skills such as interviewing. A limitation is that the interviewing skills they have might not suit this method.

The target of phenomenological research is to develop an accurate description of a person’s life experience about the subject of study. Analysis can reveal the experience by asking questions such as “how does it feel after diagnosis with a terminal illness or experience after treatment and discharge. Researchers who use phenomenology in nursing collect data for analysis primarily through interviews, stories or observations of research participants who have gone through an experience of the issue under study.

Transcribing the interviews and analyzing data from several people are also part of this process. Some approaches can help with the interpretation of data with the aim of identifying the meaningful information and classifying them into themes after an analysis of all sets. The themes are common issues between various participants.

3. Values experience

Phenomenology draws an increasing number of researchers because it considers a whole person and values experience like the nursing practice. Nursing focuses on sensitivity and sympathy for the people by recognizing the validity of their experiences and supporting their control over health. Nurses trained to listen, empathize and create a rapport. These are valuable skills in phenomenology, and those with a nursing background might feel sufficient to conduct the appropriate interview in this kind of research.

Phenomenological research takes one of these two approaches:

Descriptive phenomenology: descriptive approach uses bracketing approach by putting aside things that a researcher knows about experience under investigation and approaches data without misconceptions to maintain objectivity. Researchers using descriptive phenomenology should discuss the criteria of bracketing preconception to ensure neutrality. It might even include conducting a literature review.

Interpretative phenomenology: interpretative phenomenology states that it is impossible to rid the mind of preconceptions and approaches something with neutrality. It relies on the interpretation of personal experiences to interpret those by other people or use it to develop research questions. They may need to show how their experiences shape the choice of a research topic, questions, and interpretations. They might even write an appendix down about the things they expect to uncover.

4.Challenge of phenomenology on nursing research

Phenomenology today is in wide use because it broadens understanding of the human phenomena that are relevant to nursing practice. However, nurse researchers do not adhere to acceptable phenomenological standards. The bulk of these challenges are that researchers should indicate the focus of their investigations, designs, and approach to data collection and analysis. The expectation is that they should present the findings in an expressive and evocative manner.



 Enroll for a phlebotomy training program

Phlebotomy courses are short-term programs that take less than a year. Completion time in some schools only takes two weeks. The trainees learn basic skills to apply as a phlebotomist such as:

  • Drawing blood in various ways, techniques, and equipment
  • Basic lab safety, legal and patient interaction subjects
  • Hands-on practice in labs and hospitals

Most credible phlebotomy training programs take 4-8 months (1-2 semesters).

 Obtain a certificate and license

Certification after a phlebotomy training program is necessary even if it might not be a legal requirement to start practicing in some states. The reality on the field is that many employers still ask for certification before hiring phlebotomists. Advance certification also allows new trainees to broaden the range of activities they can perform on a daily basis and provide an opportunity to earn a higher salary. Phlebotomy certification can come from a variety of organizations, but there are some with more clout. For instance, these are the leading providers of certification in the United States.

  • American Medical Technologists (AMT)
  • National Health career Association (NHA)
  • American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP)

Certification requires the applicants to take an exam comprising of a theory multiple choice and practical component. This exam has become a part of most training programs that students sit for during final stages of the course. Training and certification might take around 12 months, but most of the time it does not take more than ten months.

Getting employment

After completing the education, training and certification steps, it is time for a phlebotomist to take the crucial action of seeking employment. It will be unreasonable to train and get a license but fail to practice the skills. Phlebotomists should be active in job search from the beginning by offering to work at hospitals or labs. It helps to get the attention of potential employers. Rising demand for phlebotomy technicians is favoring new trainees as recruiters are likely to top approach them during training of certification.

It is essential to start making friends among the staff and HR from the first days of practice at a hospital because they will keep you informed about employment opportunities. Searching or a phlebotomy technician job should not be the last minute act because it is not an extremely engaging training.



Origins and Background of Nurse Week

A movement to give nurses a day or a week to honor their role began in the early 1950s, but it was a quiet affair. American Nurses Association (ANA) gave it limelight in 1993 after officially designating May 6-12 as permanent dates for nurses week. The effort to establish a formal period for recognition of nurses has gone through several variations including a presidential proclamation by President Richard Nixon in 1974 designated a week in February to commemorate national nurse week. His announcement was a follow-up to that by an international council of nurses.

Nurses’ week started with a nurse day. In 1953 an official at the United States Department of health sent a proposal to President Eisenhower asking him to proclaim a “Nurses Day” the following year in October. The President did not fulfill the request, but nurses observed a National Nurse Week on October 11-16 in 1954. October 1954 was also the 100th anniversary of Nightingale’s Crimea mission. Nurses observed the 100 year anniversary of a ground-breaking mission by Nightingale to provide medical care to fighters in the Crimean war. Her work at Crimea initiated reforms in the sanitary practices in UK and other places.

U.S Congress representative Frances P. Bolton introduces a bill to establish a permanent National Nurse week in 1955 after the first nurse week celebration in 1954. The bill and an attempt to revive it in 1972 failed.

1n 1978, the New Jersey Governor at that time Brendon Byrne declared May 6 to be a Nurses Day. By 1982 ANA board of directors gave a formal acknowledgement to May 6 as the National Nurses Day. The proclamation to proclaim May 6, 1982, as the “National Recognition Day for Nurses” got the Presidential sign from President Ronald Reagan. The extension of the celebration to a week took place in 1990 with the ANA Board of Directors designating May 6-12 as the permanent dates for observing nurses week in 1994 and other subsequent years.

Wednesday of every National nurses’ week got a designation to be a National School Nurse Day in 2003. A celebration of Nurses Week has become an annual affair since then to recognize that nurses are essential constituencies of health professionals and make up the collective face healthcare.

Nurses and other people can celebrate a national nurses’ week in many ways. Nurses have more interest in the observance and should take time for reflecting and celebrating their profession. Those who are not in the trade know a nurse who is close to them, and they should take time to acknowledge the role they play in healthcare.



End of the Antibiotic Era.
The findings are worrying because they reveal a resistance to the common bacteria is at alarming levels in various parts of the world. Some of them are already running out of treatment options for common infections. For instance, the resistance carbapenem antibiotics that help to fight bacteria that cause hospital-acquired infections(HAIs) such as pneumonia or infections to newborn babies has spread to the entire globe.

1. Wrong or overuse of antibiotics
Antibiotic use at any time and setting makes bacteria to experience biological pressure and gradually develops resistance. It is still necessary to use antibiotics for treatment or prevention nut the problem occurs because of wrong or misuse. The inappropriate use promotes unnecessary antibiotic resistance.

2. Overreliance on same antibiotics
Manufacturing of new typed of drugs is expensive, and as a result, there is much reliance on the same types of medicines for years. The danger is that it gives bacteria more chance to evolve and develop resistance. Also, it causes new infections that are resistant to an available antibiotic such as the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Similarly, many people take it for granted that antibiotics will clear some infections such as bacterial pneumonia, gonorrhoea and tonsillitis yet they have become untreatable.

3. Wrong or excessive antibiotic use on animals
Those who rear or treat food-producing animals play a crucial role in promoting drug resistance by incorrect or excessive administering of antibiotics. Resistant bacteria develop in the animals and transmit to humans brings through the food from animals.


An antibiotic era coming to an end means the significant development of resistant organisms called superbugs. These are a lab concern and global threat because they are already responsible for life-threatening infections and increased death tolls.

These infections are a headache to healthcare providers as they are aggravating at a high rate in volatile situations such as during famine, natural disaster, violence and civil unrest. The focus is mostly on the calamity, and medics take long to determine to identify spreading of superbugs. The environment at those moments is also not right to manage the spreading.

World health organization has already given a warning that that post-antibiotic era will cause frequent infections and even small injuries might cause death if there is no action to halt antibiotic resistance. Multidrug-resistant bacteria are now causing more deaths more deaths worldwide even in developed countries. For instance, 63,000 patients die every year due to hospital-acquired bacterial infections in the United States. Approximately 25,000 patients die every year due to multiple drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections in Europe. Many other counties are facing a heavy burden of S. Aureus infections while MRSA strains are spreading globally at a rapid pace.

Estimated costs of drug multi-drug resistant bacterial infections might increase healthcare costs as well as productivity losses. Many companies will continue distributing antibiotics that might no longer help patients to heal. Patients who do recover will require another one or more prescriptions mostly with a higher dose.

Further readmission of antibiotics from an initial cycle accelerates the resistance to mechanisms. Evidence shows that increasing antibiotic use is more likely to cause positive association with higher prevalence of the resistant microorganisms and it is the reason why patients with a history of using medicine in this class are more likely to develop resistance.




Immunotherapeutics is another promising intervention that involves the use of molecules that can boost the host immune system to prevent the disease at infection prone times. A granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) called Pegfilgrastim is one of the most successful immunotherapeutic interventions in human health for inducing neutrophil production in chemotherapeutic patients experiencing low neutrophil counts.

Maintaining an appropriate neutrophil number in blood enables the immune system to prevent infections. Immunotherapeutics also helps to boost the immune system in cattle and reduce the incidence of mastitis when exploited for agricultural purpose. Users administer pegbovigrastim, a bovine G-CSF to cattle before parturition.

An advantage of immunotherapeutics as an alternative to antibiotics is that they boost the immune system and prevent infectious diseases. A disadvantage is that they require precise timing which is extremely challenging for on-farm applications.


Biotics that can be pro-pre- or synbiotics modulate gut microbial community towards health, and they demonstrate inconsistent efficacy. Probiotics are living organisms or good bacteria for international feeding to a host Probiotics are molecular precursors that expand the presence of existing beneficial gut microbiota of a host. Synbiotics are combination prebiotics and probiotics. The purpose of this biotics is to affect the gut microbiota in a manner that improves health.

The gut microbial community of mammals’ complex consortium comprises over 500 different bacterial species. The current challenge for researchers is lack of knowledge for a precise mechanism on the contribution of each member to the health of a host. An absence of this knowledge contributes to variable results. Modulating the gut microbial community has become an alternative to the antibiotics. An investigation of the way gut bacterial interacts with one another and with the animal hosts is now an active area of research globally.

Advantages of the above approaches are that the only target the disease-causing bacterium for treatment and not other members of the beneficial microbial. They act differently from most antibiotics that attack the pathogen target together with the commensal bacteria. More development for these specific approaches by alternatives to antibiotics methods is still ongoing to improve potency, reliability, and deliverability.

Solutions to antibiotic-resistance are multifaceted because antibiotics play varying roles and one alternative cannot replace their function. Researchers need to use methods such as vaccines, immunotherapeutics and gut microbiota modulation as methods of treating and preventing illnesses.