Catabolism Of Organic Compound Essay

Catabolism Of Organic Compound Essay

Catabolism Of Organic Compound Essay

Catabolism is a system in the body where complex molecules in the living organisms are broken down to form simpler one. Catabolism is one of the available chemical reactions and processes that complete the entire metabolism process. The other process that works together with catabolism to complete metabolic reactions is known as anabolism  (Brown, Campbell, & Farrell, 2010). During the simplification of organic food, the catabolism produces the energy necessary for the process.  The adenosine triphosphate (ATP) are the molecules used to store the energy acquired from the previous process.

The ATP stores this energy in form of chemical bonds with extremely large capacity of energy and is placed in the second and third phosphate molecules. This energy is important in that is utilized by the cells in the anabolic reactions so that catalysts, hormones, sugars and any other molecules that are significant to the cell can be produced, facilitate cell growth and its replication thus the cell is able to preserve itself.  The significance of ATP, on the other hand, is to enables synthesize of more complex cell substances from the simple building blocks, thus, facilitates transportation of cell materials to and fro the cell membrane and for movement and relaxation of the cells  (Roberts, Reiss, & Monger, 2000).

What’s more, ATP undergoes further chemical reaction to facilitate breakdown of the chemical bond that leads to production of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) after the discharge of the stored energy. The two processes, catabolism and anabolism, may take place together although they operate independently and utilize different ways. Besides, catabolism is referred to as destructive metabolism and this course of action on no account can ever end. This reaction generates the energy required for the physical activity from cellular to the body motion.  In addition, catabolism is also responsible for manufacturing of the energy essential for regulating body temperatures, and the simplifying compound molecules and chemicals into simple pieces that are excretions (Garrett & Grisham, 2012).

 

 

 

 


References
Brown, W. H., Campbell, M. K., & Farrell, S. O. (2010). Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry. Boone,KY: Cengage Learning.
Garrett, R. H., & Grisham, C. M. ( 2012). Biochemistry. Boone, KY: Cengage Learning.
Roberts, M. b., Reiss, M. J., & Monger, G. (2000). Advanced biology. Gloucestershire: Nelson Thornes.

Do Schools Provide Students Enough Opportunities To Be Creative?

Do Schools Provide Students With Enough Opportunities To Be Creative?

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Do Schools Provide Students With Enough Opportunities To Be Creative?

In a world that is evolving at an unprecedented rate both in technological innovation but also in career trends and methods of making money, it seems almost nonsensical that we continue to teach the kids of the digital age in the same ‘railroading manner as their parents and grandparents were raised with.

The idea that a 14–15-year-old pupil showing promising academic potential or ability to recite an outdated curriculum, is ushered in the direction of striving towards becoming a doctor, a lawyer, or a banker and so bound to the limits of hardcover textbooks for the next 10-years of their adolescence and early childhood, instead of giving these students the opportunity to develop with more cognitive freedom is simply a ‘part of life which goes unchallenged. From an early age as children, we are warped into believing that going to school, getting good grades, and going to university is the only way to have a fruitful and stable career when quite frankly in the modern era this couldn’t be further from the truth. Yes, those who break through the confines of over-subscribed graduate jobs and are lucky enough to avoid the plague of spiraling student loans often end up having successful careers, however, it is time that the education system reflected the reality of the world we live in. That 15-year-old boy has a natural ability to film and edit videos but instead of recognizing this niche and aiding this child in the process of how to monetize and improve on his natural ability, he is forced to study sciences and math that he knows he will never use a day in his life when he leaves the front door of that school for the last time.

With almost every pupil having access to unlimited information at the click of a finger through Google and the accessibility of smartphones and other smart devices, the amount of time which children are stimulating their creative minds and test their critical thinking is being significantly impaired, in a society where pre-technological advances, creative minds were already being confined and neutralized, the modern era poses a severe threat to the creative outlet of future generations and one which is not being recognized and accounted for in the education system.

Yes, you could argue school has opportunities for a creative outlet, through extra-curricular clubs and societies or through arts and music-related subjects and studies, however, these only cater for small cohorts of an age bracket which must be allowed to express themselves and in my opinion, one which would not only have a higher success rate in terms of percentage of kids graduating but also would almost definitely reflect in reduced mental health issues stemming from children stressing as a result of studying for tests and papers in subjects which fail to stimulate their interests. There is no doubt that certain children thrive, and their creative minds are maximized as a result of the education system, and there are aspects of schools that not only encourage creativity but expect it, but this is not the problem as this encouraging creativity is still part of the defined scope of the system and still does not allow children to explore boundaries and new concepts in terms of creativity.

A concept which I believe should be central to the education of a child’s development both cognitively and mentally but one which fails to be implemented across the United States and worldwide is the early identification of an individual’s preferred learning style. Some children not only are not capable but perhaps cannot reach their potential or lose interest in being taught by a teacher standing at the front of a classroom and reciting information which will later be tested in the form of a written test which will often examine who could regurgitate the most information which more often than not will be forgotten before the pupil gets home, an issue identified by Garfield High School in Seattle who no longer make their pupils sit the ‘Measures of Academic Progress Test’ as they realized not only was it ineffective in testing pupil’s actual ability, but it hindered any expression of creativity as it was marked by a bot automated system (Kelly).

This issue of insufficient testing further limits the creative outlet of children by fostering a ‘hollow understanding’ formed by teachers teaching for tests rather than thoroughly educating pupils (Erskine, 1-3). As made clear by this paper I am, like many respected educational academics and successful people who did not fall between the socially constructed ‘success’ lines when at school, of the opinion that the US education system needs to be overhauled with a reinforced focus on inclusion and individual identification of children’s needs.

In conclusion, from the moment children join a school they are taught to color between the lines, write a certain way and express their opinions in a certain way or risk failing the class or being disciplined. It is upsetting to think how many potentially amazing Jeff Bezos or Elon Musk-type creative thinkers have been overlooked and never reached their true potential because of the historic ‘rubric’ educational guidelines. An opinion which is held by a majority of Americans, given a Pew Research Centre survey in 2013 found that 66% of respondents felt that the education system needed to be ‘rebuilt’ (Tyson). In a world changing as fast as it is in the 21st century, change is inevitable, it is a case of how many children the system needs to see left behind before change is implemented.

Works Cited:

“It Changes How Teachers Teach: How Testing is corrupting Our Classrooms and Student Learning.” Janet Erskine, vol. 21, no. 2, 2014, pp. 1-3.

Meghan Kelly. “Garfield High School Teachers in Seattle, Washington Boycott Measures of Academic Progress (MAP) Test, 2012–2013.” Global Nonviolent Action Database, Global Nonviolent Action Database, 20 Nov. 2015,

Tyson, Alec. “Many Americans Say Educational System in Need of Overhaul.” Pew Research Center, Pew Research Center, 13 Aug. 2013,

Immigration To The United States Free Essay

Immigration To The United States Free Essay

Immigration To The United States Free Essay

Introduction
Presently, the United States is a country of immigrants; people from all over the world have immigrated into the United States. There is practically every nationality in the world represented in the United States. Immigration in the United States has been taking place for a long time and the situation is still the same at present. The following is an analysis of the immigration trends in the United States. This paper presents an analysis and interpretation of the Historical Statistics of the United States. Towards this end, the paper will present the analysis based on data from the time credible data on immigration was available up to the conclusion of the civil war. The paper will first focus on the overall immigration patterns in the United States while also focus on two other countries that contribute to the overall immigration of In the United States.

The Historical Statistics of the United States indicate a the presence of immigration into the United States as early as the eighteen hundreds with the first credible record of immigration showing immigration trends from the year 1820 onwards. In consideration of the immigration patterns in the United States ranging from the year 1820 up to the year 1984, there appears to be notable variations in the levels (in terms of numbers) of immigration into the United States. A critical look at the first few years starting from 1820 all the way to 1824 reveals low levels of immigration compared to the rest of the years. The period ranging between 1820 -1824 gives indication of an immigration rate of less than 100000 immigrants per year. On a general note, in relation to the period between 1820 and 1984, the period between 1820 and 1824 comes out as the period marked by the lowest number of immigrants into the United States (Cater and Satch Ad 90-97).
Still with the 1820 – 1984 period in consideration, the trend of immigration to the United States reveal an increasing trend, where the number of immigrants migrating to the United States have been increasing over the years. Despite the fluctuations and variations in the numbers, such as in the period between 1905 and 1914 where the number of immigrants surpassed the one million mark, the general observable trend shows an increase in number over the years.  In support to this view, as indicated above, the first few years show immigration at levels below 10000 immigrants while the years leading up to 1984 indicate immigration levels ranging between 100000 – 550000. Generally, by considering the data, the levels of immigration into the United States have been showing fluctuations and variations over the years in response to different factors of influence to immigration. The highest number of immigrants during in the period between 1820 and 1984 was 1,218,480 in 1914 while the lowest was 6,354 in 1823 (Cater and Satch Ad 90-97).
In terms of immigration into the United States based on individual countries and their contribution to immigration, the following is an analysis of the immigration trends of Britain, Germany, and China respectively. In the case of Britain and Germany, the data in consideration pertain to the immigration trends and numbers relating to the years between 1820 and 1904. The immigration trends and numbers of Britain indicate an increase in immigration over the years. For instance in 1820 total immigration to the United States from Britain stood at 2,140 and 51,448 in 1904. Between the years, 1820 and 1833 the immigration numbers to the United States remained below 5,000. In terms of variations and fluctuations, the immigrations from Britain to the United States reveal some uniformity in the trends over the years. The bulk of the immigrant numbers range from between 1,000 immigrants and 51,000 immigrants. There exist fluctuations in numbers with the immigrant numbers occasionally hitting the hundred thousand mark. In general, the levels of immigration from Britain to the United States has shown some increase over the years but on the other hand, the numbers indicate a steady trend in the number of people immigrating to the United States. From 1820 to 1904, the variance in the number of people immigrating from Britain and into the United states has been minimal. Apart from the first few years (1820 – 1833) the fall and rise in the number of immigrants from Britain has somewhat been insignificant compared to the almost uniform levels of immigration from Britain to the United States (Cater and Satch Ad 106-120).
In the case of Germany, the immigration numbers showing the levels of immigration from Germany to the United States also pertain to the period between 1820 and 1904. In the case of Germany, the period between 1820 and 1827 indicate immigration numbers well below 1,000 with the lowest number being 148 immigrants in 1822.  The highest numbers of immigrants between 1820 and 1904 stood at 250, 630 immigrants. A critical analysis of the data relating to the number of immigrants from Germany into the United States reveals a great deal of variance or fluctuation in numbers. There are significant increases and decreases in the number of immigrants from Germany within the period between 1820 and 1904. The immigration numbers from Germany to the United States fluctuate between the ranges of zero – 1000, 1000 – 10,000, 10,000 – 50,000, 50,000 – 100,000, and those falling above 100,000. From observation, the distribution of the number of immigrants migrating from Germany to the United States fluctuates within these ranges with a high frequency. This fluctuation could be the result of various factors that influenced the immigration patterns of Germany over the period (Cater and Satch Ad 106-120).
Compared to the levels of immigration of Britain within the same time – period, the data from the Historical Statistics of the United States indicate that Britain contributed more immigrants to the United States Compared to Germany over the same time – period. On the other hand, it is also evident that the levels of immigration to the United States by Britain were steadier and fluctuated less compared to those of Germany. This indicates that the factors that lead to immigration to the United States were more influential in the in Britain compared to those in Germany.
In the case of China, there were minimal and somewhat insignificant numbers of immigrants to the United States between 1820 and 1879. For instance, between 1820 and 1852 there were less than 100 immigrants from China to the United States.  However, in 1854 to 1879 there was a marked increase in the number of immigrants from China to the United States with the highest at 13,100 and the lowest at 2,385. In comparison to Britain and Germany, between 1820 and 1852 China contributed the least immigrants among the three countries (Cater and Satch Ad 136-148).
Conclusion
In relation to the data provided by Historical Statistics of the United States, different countries have contributed differently to the number of immigrants in the United States owing to various factors in play. Also in consideration of the three countries mentioned above. The numbers of immigrants to the United States indicate an increase over the years. With the above facts in mind, coupled with the data on the world’s contribution to immigrants in the United States the United States is truly a country of immigrants.
References
Cater, Susan B. and Richard Satch. “IMIGRANTS EMIGRANTS AND MIGRATION.” Historical Statistics of the United States. n.d.

Jollibee’s Success Term Paper

Jollibee’s Success Term Paper

Jollibee’s Success Term Paper

Introduction
Global expansion has turned out to be a prevalent occurrence over the precedent two decades. The disclosure from big multinational firms’ product collections has become a daily reality for a majority of people around the world. Strategizing internationally has for the last decades been the catchphrase for multinational companies to make use of synergies and arbitrage across regions and accomplishing global success. Thus, global strategy is an abridged term that covers three areas: multinational, global, and international strategies. An essence of global strategy is an expansive world vision that considers the prospects of every location as a market and as a source of aggressive advantage both alone and when integrated with the rest of the firm. Global enterprises such as Jollibee must construct strategies for international expansion, diversification, and integration to develop, protect, and make use of their resources and capabilities. Therefore, this paper analyses the Jollibee’s success and give details on some of the strategies that contribute to their success and how Jollibee’s case offers insights that can be helpful for other restaurant chains or retailers in international markets.

The global strategies are significant in comprehending the success of a firm for instance, it will be significant in understanding the success of Jollibee. This is because; strategic performance management of an organization is a measurement device of the success of an organization in that it helps in defining how the business  realized its strategic goals, how they align their behaviors and attitudes , and eventually how they were able to attain their success. Jollibee being one of the leading food producing firms must have employed some of the basic strategies in order to become this successful.
One of the most fundamental strategies that a company can build on its success is what we call core competence. That is, the expertise inside the firm that rivals cannot emulate or match. For instance, just when Jollibee had about eleven stores, McDonald a giant corporation began opening up its stores in the same environment. Most people thought that McDonald was going to outdo Jollibee and feared for its closure. However, Jollibee used it core competence of analyzing the McDonald’s weakness and decided to improve on that weakness. Therefore, it realized that its competitor’s weakness is that their products were too standardized for a majority of locals, therefore, local firm could gain share by modifying its menu to that suiting local taste. Hence, they set apart their hamburgers by a secret blend of flavors mixed into the ground beef to make their burgers sweeter than those produced by its competitor pleasing more to the local tastes. Thus, by pursuing this strategy they retained a leading position over the global giant.
Another strategy that can have an effect on the success of a firm is the ability to identify the differentiation in buyer’s flavor and fondness. For instance, in the mid 80s the Jollibee had gained confidence of expanding globally. Thus decided to explore the Asian markets in countries such as Indonesia where it exploited the strategy localizing the menu to better harmonize with local tastes, thereby distinguishing itself from the McDonalds.  Therefore, continued to keep up its principal position over its major rival the global giant McDonald.
Besides, several factors have contributed to the fast and constant success of this company. The primary one could be their exhaustively consumer knowledge of their customers taste buds. Addition of the friendly staff and service around its core products is another secret behind this success. The company creates a family value in all its outlets, plus the fact that it is a home-based brand, thus creation of well-built emotional attachment between the fast food trade name and its loyal clients.
In conclusion, Jollibee is a prevailing market leader in Philippines. Through combining basic global strategies, outstanding service, a pleasant ambience with an appealing menu, the Jollibee brand has been capable to influence its home-based status to the hilt. As well, it serves as an example of a role model firm that presents insights that restaurants chains or retailers in global markets could follow.

 

Reference

Hill, C. W. (2003). International business: competing in the global marketplace. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill/Irwin.

The Difference Between Future Currencies And Foward Currencies Paper Example

The Difference Between Future Currencies And Foward Currencies Paper Example

The Difference Between Future Currencies And Foward Currencies Paper Example

Currency future refers to a promise that is made by  signing a contract in which the buyer of the future agrees to purchase or sale an underlying asset in future date at a predetermined price agreed upon at the time of entering into the contract. In other words, it means that one is doing a promising currency business for a future date. Under this system the transaction price of currency in future is determined at present. Entering into a futures contract allows investors shield themselves from foreign exchange risk that occurs due to currency fluctuations. Currency forward on the other hand refers to a contract in the foreign currency market in which currency price to be paid for a currency is determined predetermined in a future date. Under currency forward contract, the contract holder is the person who can sell or buy the currency only at a predetermined price on a predetermined date (Lien, 2006).

Forward and futures contract are very similar financial contracts since they both involve buying an underlying contract in future. However, there exist a few crucial differences between future and forward currency contracts. One of the differences is that in currency forward you can not signature the contract like the contracts of currency future. Furthermore, futures contracts are standardized, which mean they are offered in fixed amounts, while the terms and amounts of a  forward contract can be privately negotiated. Lastly, futures are bought and sold on the exchange market while forwards are traded over the counter. Futures and forward are contracts and like any binding contract between two parties where there must be an agreement.
The participants in the contract may be unable or unwilling to follow through the rules of transaction at the settlement time. This kind of situation brings about a risk known as the counterparty risk (Weithers, 2011). In future contracts, the clearinghouse, or the exchange market acts as the counter party to either individuals or parties in the contract to reduce this risk. In order to reduce credit risk, the clearing house requires that all future contracts position are marked to the every daily, with the requirement for margins to be maintained and posted daily by both participants at all times. This measure taken by the clearinghouse ensures that there is virtually zero counterparty risk in futures currencies trade. On the other hand, forward currencies market has no such mechanism in place. This is due to the fact that forwards settlements are only done at the time of delivery. The loss or profit realized on a forward contract is realized only at settlement time at the maturity of the contract, so exposure to credit keeps on increasing. This means that potential losses from a forward contract are greater than those incurred in a futures currency contract (Bickford, 2005).
Due to the highly standardized nature for future contracts, trading in futures in a secondary market is made possible. This makes futures  more liquid than forwards because the active secondary market allows people to buy and sell the futures at the open market. Therefore if a participant in the futures contract wishes to transfer their obligation to another party, he or she may do so by selling the contract to other willing buyers in the futures market. In contrast to this, there exist no secondary markets to sell forward contracts meaning that once a party commits to a contract, they cannot opt out.
In conclusion the main difference between futures currencies and forward currencies is that futures are standardized and can be traded in a public exchange market, while the forward currencies are tailor made and their terms and amounts can be altered to meet specific requirements for the person purchasing or selling the currency forward. In addition, forwards are not traded on the exchange market. Another difference is that investors pay for the futures contracts and posts the margin required, whereas, no initial outlay is needed for a forward currency contract, and in many cases collateral is not required. In that case, an investor with forward currency contracts is free to channel the funds in to other investments as he waits for the value date of the contract (Weithers, 2011).
References:
Bickford, M. D. ( 2005). Getting Started in Currency Trading: Winning in Today’s Hottest Marketplace. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2005.
Lien, K. ( 2006). Day Trading the Currency Market: Technical and Fundamental Strategies To Profit from Market Swings. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, 2006.
Weithers, T. ( 2011). Foreign Exchange: A Practical Guide to the FX Markets. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.

A Comparison Essay On Emirates Between Past And Present

A Comparison Essay On Emirates Between Past And Present

A Comparison Essay On Emirates Between Past And Present

United Arab Emirates, one of the best countries in the world in terms of development, has seen a significant progress in many fields of life such as education, construction, and health. The surprising thing is that United Arab Emirates was founded only a few decades ago having been in existence for only three decades. However, this relatively new country competes with other ancient countries by its achievements.
On December 2, 1971, the United Arab Emirates announced a federation of seven emirates. The name “emirates,” is equivalent to the words “states” or “cities.” The capital of United Arab Emirates, and the biggest city in UAE, is Abu Dhabi. Dubai is a more modern and famous city due to its amazing modern architecture. Then, other emirates are Sharjah, Umm Al Quwain, Ajman, Ras Al Khamah and Fujairah, where I live.

In the years immediately following its founding, the sheiks from the different emirates encountered a number of challenges. Among the challenges they encountered was the British occupation of the Arabian Gulf where the United Arab Emirates is located. However, revenue began coming in from the oil, which brought about a renaissance for the country. Using the revenue from oil, the United Arab Emirates began to make tremendous progress in the areas of education, health, and construction in the next three decades, which has drawn the attention of other great countries. From the reign of Sheik Zayed when country was in a poor state, emirates were able to compete with other countries.
United Arab Emirates’ main focus is the education, which is a key element for the renaissance of any community. This focus on education has increased the efficiency of school and education authorities. The education in the United Arab Emirates is free for all school levels and the universities. It is not limited only to emirates people, and it’s also for the international people. My father was fifteen years old when the emirates united. “I noticed how the different today and those days are,” he told me during my interview. He was living in sixth city, which is Ras Al Khama.
I remember one day when I got home from school, I saw my father and my grandfather were sitting on the sofa in the living room. I was wearing the school uniform, which was a light grey t-shirt and dark grey pants. Before I went to my bedroom, my father stopped me. He wanted to know how I was doing in school and what my grade was. After a while, my father took a deep breath, and he put his hand on my shoulder and said,
“Don’t lose this chance of education.”
“Why?” I said,
“You know, Majed, when I was like you, I had a difficult time getting an education, but I got it. There were many things that had changed; for example, I started my first day in school when I was eight years old, and do you know Murbeh? That was my school,” My father said.
Murbeh is about thirty miles away from where he lived. He also said, “We didn’t have a school bus. We were waiting for a volunteer who had a bus to take us to the school and we were waiting for him after the Fajer prayer.” The Fajer prayer is around five o’clock in the morning meaning that schoolchildren had to wait out in the cold that early to catch a ride to school. In addition, mad dad told me that, “The bus that we were in didn’t have an air conditioner. He said that twice while he was tapping my shoulder and smiling. He did that because we have schools and buses that are comfortable unlike those days. My grandfather was listening to us while we were talking. And my father asked him, “How did you learn?”
“I didn’t go to school; I went to the mosque to learn the basics of math and Arabic language grammar. In my day, I remember there were just five or six schools in United Arab Emirates; the mosque was the only place where people could learn,” my grandfather said,
In addition, the health sector also started to evolve when the revenue in the United Arab Emirates increased. At the time when my father was a young, there were very few hospitals in all of the United Arab Emirates. Today,  there are hospitals all over the United Arab Emirates. This I was able to get from an interview with my grandfather whom I called using Skype during the weekend. I wanted to know what they did if anyone fell sick those days. He said, “I remember when my father was sick; he would go to India to get medicine and care”. He used the example of smallpox to show me the real condition of the hospital system  in the fifties and how it was hard to get care in the UAE. “It was terrifying; no one knew what it was, so we had to cross the ocean to go to India. But now we have the best hospital in the world,” he said while smiling. I did not understand him. Then, he then explained to me that the government of Abu Dhabi had opened a branch of John Hopkins Hospital a couple of years back. He explained to me that this was the best hospital in the world  and said “I don’t have to go out of our country to get the care anymore.” Furthermore, construction technology in the United Arab Emirates, especially in Abu Dhabi and Dubai, can be compared with  that of most of the other developed countries in the field of construction. Those two cities have the tallest buildings in the world, which are renowned globally.

Time-Value Formulas & Cost Benefits Paper Sample

Time-Value Formulas & Cost Benefits Paper Sample

Time-Value Formulas & Cost Benefits Paper Sample

Cost benefit analysis is an important undertaking by any organization or country this paper aims at giving a clear analysis of cost of cost benefit analysis. CBA is a very useful tool that governments use in making properly informed decisions. Any government must make the appropriate decisions on long-term projects it intends to undertake. Planers involved in decision are able to analyze the cost of implementing a policy in the industry. The figures obtained in the different periods are used to obtain the suitability, success, or failure of a given project.

Net present value

Net present value is the product of costs and benefits divided by the discount factor.

 PV= NB0+ d1NB1+ d2NB2+

+ dn–1NBn–1+ dnNBn

The difference obtained between benefits and costs is denoted by N B.

The discounting weight = 1/(1+r)t

Scenario one:

The fist scenario we put into consideration is that of waste recycling center project. The project is valued at  $1,000,000. The planners estimate three distinct discount rates; 5%, 6%,7%.

Discounted value for 5% rate is shown below.

Take discounted value= z

z= k/(1+r)t

z=$1,000,000

    (1+0.05 )2 

Z=$1,000,000

        1.1025

=$907029.48

 

 

Discounted amount for 6%

Z=$1000000       

     (1+.06)2

Z=$1000000

      1.1236

Z= $889996.44

Discounted rate for 7% rate

Z=$ 1000000

     (1+0.07)

$1000000

1.1449

Z= $873438.73

The present value is dependent of the interest value as proved in the calculations above.

Present value reduces with increase in the interest rate for the two year. 5% is the minimal interest rate. It affects the present value by a small margin consequently. the percentage is then increased to 6% and this reduces the present value by a bigger margin compared to 5% . 7% percent reduces the present value with a greater margin than the other lower percentages.

Second scenario

As stated earlier, public projects are dictated by their costs and the benefits that result from their existence. Time becomes an important issue for consideration in carrying these activities. There is need to consider the time a project takes to start realizing the expected results. Discounting serves all this activities. It is the direct opposite off compounding. It enables conversion of benefits and costs to the present situation.

 

 Benefit- Cost ratio of windmill construction

The following are the costs of constructing a windmill in a village.

Price for fifty windmills $150,000(50)

Staff training $55,000(10).

Operating and maintenance cost 35,000(50)

Cost of shutting down plant $1000000

Reduced productivity $55*10*450

Lost jobs 35*3*450

Total cost =$7500000000+$550000+$1000000+$247500+$47250

Total cost=$ 7501844750

Benefits

Increased life expectancy $15000(5000)

Saving from pollution for three years =$ 7000000

Total benefits= $75000000

Cost benefit ratio

1500=500/(1+r)3        1500=500/(1+r3)            0.333333=1+r3     -0.6667=r3

R=0.89

Cost benefit ratio= 7501844750      7501844750

                              (1+0.89)3                    6.751269

=1111175506

Benefits ratio

7501844750

75000000      =100

The benefit cost ratio is 100. This implies that the project is viable over the stipulated time. The benefit cost ratio show clearly that the project comes with enormous advantages. In the case the ratio is a negative value then the project may not be necessary since the benefits are not felt within the stipulated time period.

 

References

Guido Sonnemann, F. C. (2004). Integrated Life-Cycle and Risk Assessment for Industrial Processes. new york: CRC Press.

New Issues In Interior Design Statement Essay

New Issues In Interior Design Statement Essay

New Issues In Interior Design Statement Essay

Abstract
The universal design for learning is not only associated with technology, as it is the common phenomena to most people, but it also entails either the pedagogy or the instructional practices used by scholars with and without disabilities. The Universal Design adheres to seven guiding principles, which drives the design of products and environs thus enabling optimal utility by more individuals without the need for specialized designs. The king-Sears (2009) highlights the importance of Universal Design for learning to the learning disability society. The glamour of Universal Design learning captures the ideology of most legislators and educators. The Higher Education Opportunity Act provisions the need of colleges utilizing federal funds to give reports on the outcomes of Universal Design Learning within their overhaul preparation programs. The King-Sears piece was taken as commentary article, which spearheaded conversations on contemporary topics. The King-Sears concerns were the ability of intellects to implement a construct, which it could not define. Policy makers have been on the forefront trying to translate the Universal Design hypothesis into practice.     

 Universal design

Introduction
King-Sears & M, (2009) identifies the orgin of Universal Design Learning and its attributions to  Anne Meyer, david rose, and interllects at the Centre for Applied Special Technology. The issue of inclusion in the 1990’s in the United States led to the principles of Universal Design of learning. This led to the enactment of the ‘Individuals with Disabilities Act’ in 1997.  This was mainly to assist students gain physical admission to the common education classroom. However, there were issues being raised of whether students would gain access to the general curricullum. The matters that were connected to the access of the curriculum was the main concern of the Centre for Applied Special Technology (CAST’s) work and in 1999 the federal funding awarded grants to help establish the National Centre thus enabling accessability to the Genaral Curriculum, which was significant in getting national attention for the prospective centre of Universal Design for learning (King-Sears & M, 2009). The objective of this paper is understand the connection between Universal Design Learning and the Centre for Applied Special Technology and how it assisted Universal Design Learning in gaining national attention.
The Centre for Applied Special Technology insights concerning the Universal Design for learning were being addressed. The CAST employees presented their projects at the Annual Office of Special Education ‘OSEP’ project directors conference during the 1990’s. The reception of the project by the research community was good and this led to the first wave of national attentio to the construct (King-Sears & M, 2009). Centre for Applied Special Technology  utilized other publications in order to give a description of their ideologies of how the concept of Universal Design could be applied in the education system (What Works in Inclusion?, 2013, p. 79).
The second wave of the spread of national attention to the Universal design for learning took place after 2002. This was when Rose and Meyer published a book, which was describing the works of the UDL (King-Sears & M, 2009)
Boyle, C., & Topping, K. J. ( 2013). What Works in Inclusion? Singapore: McGraw-Hill International.
King-Sears, & M. (2009). Universal Design for Learning. Learning Disability Quaterly, 199-201.

The main topics involved learning, brain development, and digital media. In addition they indicated the divide between the ever more student population and a ‘one size-fits all’ curriculum, protesting that this was an impediment to academic achievement benefits which is the expectations of the 21st century worldwide citizens. The concept of challenging educators by giving the thought that the curriculum is disabled rather than the students, their ability of translating values of the Universal Design, which derives its origin in architecture moving to education, is the cause of the key model shift (King-Sears & M, 2009).
In conclusion, the Universal Design Learning outlines the importance of the disability society being able to learn. Its ideologies and concepts with no doubt hold considerable promise to those people marred with disabilities and guarantees them inclusion to both the education system and curriculum.

References
Boyle, C., & Topping, K. J. ( 2013). What Works in Inclusion? Singapore: McGraw-Hill International.
King-Sears, & M. (2009). Universal Design for Learning. Learning Disability Quaterly, 199-201.

Nestle Coffee Company’s Marketing Trends Sample Article

Nestle Coffee Company’s Marketing Trends Sample Article

Nestle Coffee Company’s Marketing Trends Sample Article

Introduction
Marketing is the process of management that is responsible for identification, anticipating and satisfying the needs of the customers profitably (Hughes, Ralf, & Michels, 1998). The main function of doing marketing is to establish the market forces, developments and the factors of a company’s ability to maximize its benefits from them. Marketing ensures that the right service or product gets to the customer at the right price, time and at the right place (Lopes & Duguid, 2010). This explains that without well-planned marketing strategies companies could not get close to the customers hence they would not satisfy their needs. On the other hand, when such companies fail to satisfy and meet demands of the customers the competitors would get closer to customers and satisfy their needs (Luttinger & Dicum, 2011).

Nestle coffee company’s supply chain trends
A supply chain is a series of processes and activities needed to process a product from it is raw form to finished products sold to the consumers. Coffee has a complex supply chain and it differs from one country to another. Nestle coffee company is one of the pioneer companies that purchases coffee directly from the farmers (Neilson & Pritchard, 2011). Therefore, most of the time the company purchases it is coffee from the producers and in those nations where coffee purchasing directly is not possible Nestle company uses ways that enables the company to get as close as possible to the producers.  In the nations, where direct purchase from the producer they use intermediaries who sometimes does some of the primary processing of the coffee or they could assembles different qualities of coffee qualities from the producers and then sell to the processers, a dealer or another intermediary (Wit & Meyer, 2010). The intermediaries include exporters, government agencies, dealers, or the brokers, the processer retailers and roasters.
Price balancing at Nestle coffee company
Day-to-day world commodity markets determine the coffee prices. Due to existence of intermediaries in between the producers and the actual consumers within the chain of supply of coffee, there is increase in the prices of coffee. The main issue now is how the coffee processor companies could ensure the producers gain a fair pay for the work done. Companies achieve these through manufactures eliminating the intermediaries; learn to buy coffee directly from the producers, and assure producers minimum prices (Lopes & Duguid, 2010). The relationship between the amount of coffee available for supply and customer’s demand determines coffee prices. Nestle coffee company buys coffee directly from the producers to cut down the prices. Nestle company policy of buying directly from the growers ensures a fair price. This ensures good quality of coffee from the growers. The high quality coffee from the producer dictates very high prices that Nestle Company pays since the company belief that good quality raw materials is one of the essential things for their success. In the nations were the company does not buy directly they advertise their and the minimum based price (Wit & Meyer, 2010). Nestle reduces and manages the prices through purchase of coffee from the dealers in the countries like United Kingdom that has millions of producers through the internal market. In the process, the Nestle Company gets to know several personnel along the supply chain.  The company ensures and oversees good relations among the dealers and the exporters. The company also plans and invites some shippers to train and learn with their quality assurance staff members. Finally, the Nestle Company allows producers in all activities in coffee production to ensure highest standards production of coffee (Neilson & Pritchard, 2011).
What a new entrant needs to compete in a coffee supply chain
The new entrants in the coffee supply chain need to command a better price to the producers for them to compete. The new entrants need a good service to the producers of coffee for them to compete (Wit & Meyer, 2010). The new entrants need a very high quality coffee products than the other competitors to compete in the coffee industry. The new entrants needs high-trained staff members and treat their employees well for them to compete in the coffee industry. New entrants need to acquire new markets and manufacturers to compete. The new entrants also need very high financial resources for them to compete (Neilson & Pritchard, 2011).
Conclusion
Among the producers and Nestle coffee company, their common interest is to ensure, high quality of coffee products and farmers receives the best prices for their productions. Ensuring producers have the best pay ensures continuous supply of good quality coffee that Nestle company requires to succeed in the coffee processing industry (Wit & Meyer, 2010).
References
Hughes, J., Ralf, M., & Michels, B. (1998). Transform Your Supply Chain. United Kingdom: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Lopes, T. d., & Duguid, P. (2010). Trademarks; Brands; and Competitiveness. United Kingdom 
: Routledge.

Discussion Essay Sample- Migration And Immigration

Discussion Essay Sample- Migration And Immigration

Discussion Essay Example- On Migration And Immigration

Introduction
In the recent economic crisis in world, has lead to people moving from one country to another for different reasons. Migration is the movement of persons from one place to another. There are different types of migrations. They include internal migration, movement within a country mostly from the rural to urban areas or international migration, movement between different countries (Bogue, Liegel, & Kozloski, 2009). Migration has impacts on the place receiving the immigrant, the place left behind, and on the individual. Persons migrate for different reasons. Some move for better economic opportunities, migrate due to political conditions in their countries, move for family-reunion and others move for education purposes. Immigration is the movement of persons into another country or regions where they intend to settle. Immigration occurs due to several reasons, including environmental reasons, natural disaster, and poverty, political or personal choice to change the surrounding (Min, 2002). Immigrants in a country are group into two groups, temporary and permanent immigrants. Temporary immigrants intend to stay for a given period and then go back, while permanent immigrants want to establish their permanent residence in the new country and later acquire that country’s citizenship (DeLaet, 2000). This paper will focus on the current migration trends and migration in the US.

During the time when US had a sustained economy, it attracted high numbers of immigrants. Foreign-born population increased from 9.6 million in 1970 to 38.1 million in 2007 (Immigration & Council, 1997).over one million immigrants have moved to the US legally each year in the last decade, while almost another half a million moved there illegally each year. Recently immigration flows have slowed to the US, and this has lead to the question from lawmakers and analysts of what impact it has on the current economic crisis on inflows and return migration.

In the last two years pew Hispanic center confirmed the growth of the illegal immigrant population in the US has been constant. Between the year 2006 and 2007 showed a net increase of 500,000 immigrants as per the data released by American Community Survey of the Census Bureau. Immigrants in the US changes seasonally although the direction continues to be upward, also the number of immigrants from other regions shows seasonal trends, but generally the trend has been flat for about a year (DeLaet, 2000). Migration has increased globally due to the recent economic crisis forcing people to migrate to developed countries. The people have migrated to look for good paying jobs, and look for areas where they can settle and have a good life than they have currently. The US population currently encompasses eleven percent of foreign-born residents up from six percent in 1980and these will continue growing in the next fifteen years.The strapping US economy, political, and economic difficulties in developing nation leads to the growth of the foreign-born population.US is inclusive to immigrants since allows foreigners onto the state every years through green card lotteries wins, and through this population grows hence increasing global migration.

Migration has both negative and positive penalties for sending and receiving states, but on balance the
Migration will outweigh the cost for most countries. Migration benefits the already developed regions, while undeveloped regions will lose population due to migration. Migration will reduce the elderly in developed regions and increase it in the undeveloped ones.

In conclusion regardless of the concern about the impacts and levels of current immigration, economic migration continues to bring huge opportunities for the US, but it threatens to confuse these benefits. The fact of greater population mix and mobility is here to stay.
References
Bogue, D. J., Liegel, G., & Kozloski, M. ( 2009). Immigration; internal migration; and local mobility in the U.S. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.
DeLaet, D. L. (2000). United States Immigration Policy in an Age of Rights. New York: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Immigration, P. o., & Council, N. R. ( 1997). The New Americans. New york: National Academies Press.
Min, P. G. (2002). Mass Migration to the United States. Maryland: Rowman Altamira.