The Best Stethoscope that Every Nurse Needs

In the vast ocean of medical equipment, you’ll find the best stethoscope that every nurse needs. As a nurse, there are several pieces of equipment that you need to have at work. The major one that you need is a stethoscope so we have different types of stethoscopes and factors to be considered when purchasing a stethoscope. Besides, there are major anatomies of a stethoscope. These are the common differences in a stethoscope.

 Stethoscope Anatomy Types

1.Dual-head -A dual head stethoscope has two listening parts i.e the diaphragm for listening to high-pitched sounds and the bell to hear lower-pitched sounds.

2.Single head /acoustic– these stethoscopes allow diagnostic procedures of high and low pitched sounds based on the amount of pressure applied to the head. Low-pitched sounds can be heard with the stethoscope diaphragm and are easily converted to high-pitched sounds when pressure is applied to the stethoscope head.

3.Digital /electronic-these stethoscopes allow the atmosphere noise filtration and heart and lung sound recordings. These stethoscopes are quite expensive and are not superior to dual or single head stethoscopes.


 Types of Stethoscopes

a)3M Littmann 6152 Cardiology IV Diagnostic Stethoscope. Its features are:

Adjustable diaphragm has 9 different colors, has no natural rubber latex material, has a double-sided chest piece, tubes retain their shape after folding, Snap-tight and soft-sealing ear tips.

The patient feels comfortable with a non-chill rim. This stethoscope has a 7 years warranty.

  1. b) MDF Acoustica Deluxe Lightweight Dual Head Stethoscope. Its features are a lifetime warranty, light in weight, 3 pairs of comfort seal ear tips, dual-headed aluminium chest piece, and efficient sound performance.

c)3M Littmann Classic III Monitoring Stethoscope 27 inch 5803. Its features are: effective for both pediatric and adult patients, the headset is easily adjustable, can be used in all critical and non-critical environments, has no rubber latex material, has a 27 inches long tubing, the diaphragm is easy to clean, variety of colors, can monitor the heartbeat and detect all the normal or abnormal sounds.

d)3M Littmann Lightweight II S.E. Stethoscope 2450. This stethoscope is soft, flexible, and quite smooth. It’s nice on the skin around your neck and doesn’t get sticky like other stethoscopes can be at times.

  1. e) ADC – 618SF Adscope Animals 618 Pediatric Clinician Stethoscope. Its features are: AFD technology, chest piece made of Resin material, has additional soft dual-ear tips, has 7 animal face snap-on, has a storage pouch, is 30 inches long, and has a lifetime warranty.

f)White Coat Dual Head Stethoscope. Its features are: it is a dual head, has improved acoustic performance, has a durable quality, has a storage pouch, a LED pen, and a lifetime warranty.

Factors to Consider When Buying a Stethoscope.

1.Tubing- A large-sized stethoscope tube is good in monitoring adults whereas a small size is used to monitor children.

2.Diaphragm-AFD technology makes the diaphragm adjustable. That means that if pressure is applied to it, the sound is heard clearly and if no pressure the sound is usually low.

3.Chestpiece type-Non chill rim containing chest pieces are the best because they will not affect the sensitivity of your skin.

4.Material used- ensure the stethoscope you are about to buy is not made of natural rubber or latex because most people are allergic to it.

5.Warranty card- Nursing requires full-time attention hence tools the students use should have at least 5 years of warranty.

6.Eartips- Silicone ear tips are the best since they seal the unnecessary sounds from disturbing the process of the diagnostic procedure.

Violence in Healthcare

Violence in Healthcare: How Nurses Can Protect Themselves.

Nursing just like any other profession experiences  some challenges and in this case, violence. Violence in healthcare is a major demerit experienced by nurses. This is why we’ll expound more on violence in healthcare and how nurses can protect themselves. To be able to protect oneself from violence there are other activities you can do in correlation to that.

These include attending safety training programs offered by the organization, participating in safety health and security committees, taking part in employee complaint or suggestion procedures and reporting violent incidents.

Ways to Avoid Violence as a Nurse.

It’s important to get involved in workplace violence prevention

programs to familiarise with program policies.  Dressing for safety also goes a long way in guarding yourself against violence in the work place. This involves stuff like tying your hair backwards to avoid easy pulling, avoid necklaces and earrings as well. Avoid clothes that are too loose or too tight.

Being aware of your work environment entails being aware of both static and changing aspects for instance. room configuration, doors, lights and weather and noise levels. Notice the emergency exit doors and emergency phone numbers while changing work areas. This is a way of identifying environmental risk factors for violence.

As a nurse, take your time to learn about your patient’s behaviours. A higher percentage of violence against nurses is committed by patients. Its therefore important to identify both verbal and non-verbal cues namely: Speaking loudly or yelling, swearing, threatening tone of voice, physical appearance (neglected clothing), arms held tight across the chest, tight fists, heavy breathing, a scared look signifying fear or high anxiety, a fixed stare, aggressive, throwing objects, quick changes in behaviour and indications of intoxication (alcohol or drugs).

It is important to pay attention to your instincts by being aware of your own feelings and responses. The way you express yourself can influence how people will respond. Another important aspect of self-awareness is how cultural background makes us view the world. These views affect how we respond to patients and co-workers and in turn, affect how they respond to us.

Healthcare organizations need to have violence risk assessment tools that can be used to evaluate individuals for potential violence. These include: Triage Tool: to assess a patient’s potential danger to others or to themselves.

Indicator for Violent Behaviour: a list of five observable behaviours that indicate danger to others. Danger Assessment Tool: to assess the risk to nurses and other personnel signs of potentially violent behaviour.

It is the responsibility of healthcare organizations to establish protective policies for staff working outside the facility. Some of the policies include:

(a)  Always having a cell phone.

(b)  Be sure someone knows where you are among others.

(c)   Staffing patterns to avoid nurses working alone.

(d)   Restriction of public movement in hospitals

(e)   Come up with a system that alerts the security personnel when violence is threatened.

(f) Pin flag charts of high-risk patients.

Violence Policies to Prevent Violence in Healthcare

  1. You should not work alone if you feel uncomfortable around a patient. It is okay to request another nurse or a security guard to accompany you if it involves entering some rooms.
  1. Identify high-risk patients and flag charts. This helps even other nurses to take precautions when treating such patients.
  1. Advocate for safety measures both inside and outside the hospital.
  1. Always carry a panic device with you in your bag in case of emergencies.
  1. Make sure your work personnel are trained to cope with both physical and verbal abuse.

Qualities that All Great Nurses Share

Qualities that All Great Nurses Share

Nursing is sometimes considered a calling given the selflessness that’s involved. There are certain qualities that all great nurses share and we can all agree that these are paramount. We all know or are nurses who have gone the extra mile to ensure that their patients are comfortable and pleased during their hospital stay. Others simply ensure that their patients are encouraged to proceed with their treatment with a positive mindset.

 Top Qualities that All Great Nurses Share

Caring

There is usually an assumption that one of the major qualities that nurses join the profession is because they are caring. This should not be the case as many nurses’ priority is to secure a job, using the profession as a starting point to another career like a doctor and could also be due to lack of an alternative idea. On the other hand, a nurse has a natural aspect of truly caring about how their patients feel. This is an important aspect of their nursing career and a clear indicator of success.

 Communication Skills

Effective communication skills are important characteristics of a nurse. A nurse’s job relies on the ability to effectively communicate with other nurses, physicians, patients, and their families. Without proper communication skills, there is the likelihood to have medical errors. Patients feel neglected and misinformed. Proper communication skills will provide safe care to patients and the entire hospital not forgetting their long-term careers.

 Empathy

A good nurse shows empathy to each patient by making an effort of considering yourself in your patients’ situation. By acquiring empathy as a nurse enables you to focus on the proper care approach rather than strictly following guidelines.

 Attention to Details.

Nurses are under certain pressure as they balance receiving orders from physicians by using their knowledge skills and critical judgment to provide the highest quality patient care. In addition to this taking care of multiple patients at once is a call to human error. If you have strong attention to detail, as a nurse, personality traits can easily determine your success in your career.

 Problem-Solving Skills

In job training, it’s easier to identify nurses’ problem-solving skills even if they have been trained about it during nursing education. Having years of experience can help you sharpen your problem-solving skills yet some nurses possess this characteristic naturally. Problem-solving skills are essential to nursing since nurses generally have to make decisions related to patients’ care.


Stamina

Having sufficient stamina is one of the most important qualities of a great nurse. This is because of the activities involved during a work shift such as patient lifting and walking around the hospital to sort issues. Effective management of this skill makes a great nurse.

 Sense of Humor

Nurses encounter different levels of stressful situations but taking a chance to incorporate a positive attitude is a sign of stress relief. Having a good sense of humor also helps spread positivity to other nurses, patients, and their families. This increases trust and openness in sharing feedback and concerns.

Commitment to Patient Advocacy

As a nurse, it’s important to understand that patient advocacy is a mindset that must be practiced every day, with every patient, throughout every stage of the care period.

Willingness to Learn

Nurses spend more bedside time with patients than any other role in healthcare and their willingness to learn and adapt new knowledge into practice is one of the leading traits of a good nurse.

Critical Thinking

Putting knowledge into successful practice requires an ability to think critically especially in stressful situations.

NSG5000 Role of the Advanced Practice Nurse

NSG5000 Role of the Advanced Practice Nurse

The American Academy of Nurse Practitioner Certification Board is a body that is mandate to provide the recommended and reliable program for anticipating, practicing and advancing nursing practitioners (aanpcert, 2020). In the United States, Nursing Practitioners are currently the most preferred health partners for most Americans; meaning that as medical practice continue to blend the various aspects of clinical practice in treatment or diagnosis of various health conditions; with an added stress on the issue of health management and disease prevention, it is important to embrace the comprehensive and personal perspective that the nursing practitioners contribute to healthcare delivery (Hughes, 2015). The following essay looks at the American Association of Nursing Practitioners mission in regard to the credentialing of Nursing Practioners (NPs), with a closer look at Tampa- Florida. 

Credentialing of Nursing practitioners

In Florida State, All NPs must complete a master’s or doctoral degree program and have advanced clinical training beyond their initial professional registered nurse (RN) preparation. Didactic and clinical courses prepare nurses with specialized knowledge and clinical competency to practice in primary care, acute care and long-term health care settings. This is why in Florida State, nursing practitioner will undergo a very rigorous process; which is important for one to be recognized as a qualified health care provider and ensure the higher levels of care. It is also important that nursing practitioners attain the national certification, undergo various clinical outcome evaluations, undertake periodic peer reviews and adhere to the state and national code of ethics and practice (Hughes, 2015). A desired nursing practitioner is also one that is self- motivated to continue learning and attaining the highest levels of professional development as this will ensure that they are in a better position when it comes to clinical competency. Also when one wants to ensure that there is a proper promotion of improved health outcomes and promotion of quality health, nursing practitioners are required to participate and lead in both professional and undertake various healthcare forums, participate in evidence based research and apply what they learn in clinical practice. 

Scope of Nursing Practice in Tampa Florida

The nursing practice in Florida is regulated under the Florida Nursing Practice Act. From chapter 464 of the Florida statutes; it was established to make sure that any qualified nurse practicing in any part of Florida State including Tampa meets the mandatory requirements for safe practices (Leg.state.fl.us, 2020). In this regard, any nurse that does not have the credentials required for the minimum competency is deemed as a danger to the practice and to the general population, meaning that they are a not allowed to practice in any part of Florida state. The laws is also followed by the American Association of Nursing Practice and looks at the most common classification of nurse that include the Licensed Practice Nurse and the Registered Nurse. 

The AANP thus finds the levels of credentialing Nursing practitioners guided by the scope of this law, as defined under section 464.003(3)(a) (Leg.state.fl.us, 2020). From this statute the scope of nursing practice looks at the performance of each act that is calls for substantial specialized judgment, knowledge, and nursing practice skills that are based on the principles of biological, psychological, physical and social sciences. 

In this regard, as a Nursing Practitioner in Florida I am expected to observe , diagnose at nursing level, assess, plan, intervene and evaluation various continuum of care. In this regard it is important for me to participate in health teaching, counselling of the injured, ill, or inform. It is a mandate by the AANP that any nursing practitioner also work towards the maintenance of health and prevention of illnesses among the public. As a nursing practitioner I am also expected to administer medication and treatment as required by my level of licensure and the code of practice by the AANP (Hughes, 2015). Also as I grow through my practice I will be entitled to providing supervision and teaching of other practitioners in regard to the theory and performance of various acts. 

Impact in the Nursing Practice

In regard to the credentialing of NPs by AANP, this has helped in promoting credibility in the profession. This is because nowadays nursing practitioners are more than just provides. The AANP requires nursing practitioner to become educators, mentors, administrators and researchers. In most cases one can find that the AANP helps nursing practitioners to maintain professional standard when participating in various health policy activities at the national and state levels. The other impact of ensuring NP credentialing is that the cost of healthcare is also reduced. When nursing practitioners are able to provide high quality levels of healthcare and counselling, it means that long stays in hospitals are reduced as patient are able to adhere to treatment directions (aanpcert, 2020). The cost of healthcare is thus reduced when for example patients that find Nursing practitioners as their main provider of care, they are bound to have very few emergency room visits and lower medication costs. 

Conclusion

In conclusion, AANP mission regarding NP credentialing is very important in promoting ethical practices in the nursing profession; this also ensures an increase in patient satisfaction where statistics indicate that more people prefer making visits to nursing practitioners than physicians due to the high levels of satisfaction that they enjoy. The code of practice should always be observed and AANP should continue to ensure that NPs offer high quality, cost effective and healthcare focused on the patient. 

References

AANP. (2020). Florida. Retrieved from https://www.aanp.org/advocacy/florida

aanpcert. (2020). About Us – AANPCB. Retrieved from https://www.aanpcert.org/about

Hughes, J. (2015). The Registered Practitioner in Nursing: Scope of Practice. Developing Nursing Practice with Children and Young People, 55-57. doi:10.1002/9781119102342.part2

Leg.state.fl.us. (2020). Statutes & Constitution :View Statutes : Online Sunshine. Retrieved from http://www.leg.state.fl.us/statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&URL=0400-0499/0464/0464.html 

Barney’s Beachfront Property

Barney’s Beachfront Property

In preparation for the hurricane season, Barney, who owns beachfront property in Florida, enters into a contract with XYZ Contractors to have a wall built to prevent waves from reaching his house. The contract requires that the wall be finished by June 1, which is the start of the hurricane season. The contract has a clause that states “time is of the essence.” During the last week of May, the wall is still 30% incomplete. Even if XYZ Contractors worked around the clock, it would miss the June 1 deadline—a fact that XYZ acknowledges. Barney terminates the contract and hires another contractor to finish the wall.

Was Barney obligated to provide XYZ Contractors with sufficient time to cure the breach? Explain your reasoning.

Cultural Diversity

Cultural Diversity

In your human services profession, you are assigned to a location with a culture very different from your own, The orthodox Jewish community. In this location, you know you are an outsider. In your paper, address the following:

  1. Briefly provide an introduction about the culture in which you
    are feeling uncomfortable
  2. Share how you plan to assess the profile of the culture and the
    value of knowing the profile.
  3. Examine yourself for explicit and implicit biases and
    associated strategies to minimize the biases.

 

  1. Explain the strategies you plan to employ to enhance your
    cultural self awareness
  2. Write about the value of human services professional
    knowledge of self (especially regarding bias and awareness) in
    working with culturally diverse populations.

A Formal Business Letter

A Formal Business Letter to a Production & Printing Company

You are a branding company that wants to sign a one year contract with a production and printing company. The branding company would like the production company to print bags, stickers, boxes, wrapping papers, t-shirts, cups, books, posters and other objects for the branding company as well as the clients under the branding company. Write a formal letter making this request. Make sure to put sizes for the bags and stickers  (small, medium, large, square or circle stickers etc. or include sizes in cm, inches or meter for one of the objects).

Ask them if they have other printing facilities  and enquire about the printing techniques they use. Additionally,  request samples and /or catalogues if appropriate.

Trainee Solicitor at Ulaws LLP: Case Study

Trainee Solicitor at Ulaws LLP: Case Study

You are a trainee solicitor at Ulaws LLP, of 1 High Street, Cheston, CH4 1TS. You have received the attached email and documents from Simon Dexter, your supervisor. Carry out the instructions set out in Simon’s email.

To: [You]
From: Simon Dexter ([email protected])
Sent: 4 January 2021
Subject: Outdoor Dreams Limited (ref 15962.45)

Dear Trainee,
We have been instructed by Outdoor Dreams Limited (‘the Company’). The Company is a garden centre which has diversified into outdoor furniture, hot tubs and garden design. It has also enjoyed a lot of success by running classes in horticulture, garden design, flower arranging etc. A Company information sheet is attached as Document

A.
The Company has agreed to buy Celia Vickers’ business, Radagast Woodcarvery (‘RW’). Celia set up her business as a sole trader 5 years ago, offering wood carving tuition. The directors feel that RW will be a good fit with the Company’s existing operations. RW is valued at £150,000 and the Company will offer Celia 25,000 ordinary £1 shares (each worth £5) and 5,000 £5 cumulative non-participating 5% preference shares, in return for the business.


All of the directors are happy with the deal agreed. Celia is speaking to her accountant later this week as she was concerned about the capital gains tax consequences. If she is happy to proceed the deal will go ahead as soon as possible.

John wants to know what resolutions will be required to implement the deal and whether the tax consequences are likely to change Celia’s mind about selling RW to the Company. I met John whilst we studied the LPC together and although he never qualified he is well versed in company procedure so just needs a reminder of the resolutions required rather than the full company procedure. Please give him the relevant authorities from the Companies Act 2006.

NB: No shareholders’ resolutions have been passed to date which would affect your answer.

Please prepare a draft letter to John Abrahams explaining:
• Which members’ resolutions must be passed and an explanation of why, and
• Whether Celia will face a large CGT bill if she sells RW to the Company, or if she sells her shares in the Company at a later date. We obviously do not act for Celia so we are not calculating the CGT due. John just wants to know whether any reliefs will be available to Celia. Please note that John has authority from the Company to instruct us and you should write to him at the Company’s registered office.

Kind regards,

john

Business Decision Making

Business Decision Making

Question 1

Tolkien Transport is currently based in Leeds but has plans to expand its operations by setting up another depot in the south of England. The management team has identified four possible locations for the depot and these are listed in the decision matrix below. As a first step they have decided to use a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) to rank the options. After much discussion, the team have decided on three key criteria (Cost, Accessibility and Environmental Impact) against which to judge the options and have agreed on the ratings shown in the matrix, below (running from 4 for the best to 1 for worst under each criterion). The criteria have been weighted as follows: Cost (0.45), Accessibility (0.35) and Environmental Impact (0.2).

 

Option Cost Accessibility Environmental Impact
Bristol 4 2 1
Reading 3 3 2
Swindon 1 4 3
Chelmsford 2 1 4

Required:

  • Explain to Tolkien Transport the limitations of a multi-criteria analysis for a decision problem of this kind.

(3 marks)

 (Total: 10 marks)

Question 2

Tolkien’s marketing manager has been asked to develop a new promotional strategy for the company, which has been facing stiff competition from some new transport companies. After much research she has narrowed down the choice to three strategies and has constructed the decision tree shown below – which includes the payoffs and probabilities she has managed to estimate – but it is incomplete. She has identified three alternative promotional strategies (and their upfront cost): customer referral programme (£35,000); causes and charity (£30,000); branded gifts (£50,000). The impact on turnover in each case depends on the ‘reach’ of the promotional campaigns which could be high, medium or low. The payoffs represent the increase in annual sales turnover in £000s over a one-year period (excluding up-front costs).

Required:

  1. Complete the decision tree by providing the value of all missing elements (shown as A, B, C, D, all marked with a *).

(6 marks)

  • Use the decision tree to advise the marketing manager on the best option to choose, assuming the company wishes to maximize expected annual sales turnover, net of upfront costs.

(4 marks)

(Total: 10 marks)

Question 3

Tolkien Transport has a small facility adjacent to its Leeds depot which it uses to manufacture tarpaulins for its lorries. The facility currently produces 3000 tarpaulins a year. The company’s Finance Manager has estimated the cost per tarpaulin at this level of output to be:

            Cost per unit
Direct Materials £50
Direct Labour (cutting, trimming and sewing) £45
Variable manufacturing overhead £37
Fixed manufacturing overhead £43

An outside supplier has offered to supply all the tarpaulins required by Tolkien for £145 each. If Tolkien decided not to make the tarpaulins, there would be no other use for the production facilities and none of the fixed manufacturing overhead cost could be avoided.

Required:

  1. Calculate how much higher or lower Tolkien’s net operating income would be if it purchased the tarpaulins from the outside supplier, showing all calculations. Would you advise Tolkien to accept the offer?

(5 marks)

  • Clearly explain to Tolkien’s Finance Manager how opportunity cost might affect the make or buy decision. Illustrate with a numerical example.

(5 marks)

Sample Paper: Analysis of Poetry

Sample Paper: Analysis of Poetry

Human interactions occur within a culturally defined environment and language only gets meaning to people through cultural lenses. First interactions are often characterized by abstract meanings and vague symbolism because background differences, particularly between cultures, can pervade effective concord (Faulkner 11). Both James Longenbach and Silvia Curbelo’s poems are full of abstractions that symbolize diverse interpretations that people can derive from everyday experiences seen from a strange eye view. The two poems, “Orphic Night” and “Fall,” written by Longenbach and Curbelo, respectively, open our eyes to new abstractions that can be drawn from familiar everyday events. For instance, the falling snow may be a familiar experience but may also solicit very diverse interpretations and meanings for people from a different culture or location where falling snow is hardly experienced. The two poets give a poetic touch to experiences people are familiar with, which creates a completely new experience and feeling about them like a first interaction.

            In Orphic Night, Longenbach describes feelings and imagination that is seemingly alien and bewildering with ambient awe, but it is all experience reflected in memory. He talks of the absence of perspective and everything certain only in memory. The poem delves into experiences and feelings that scaffold a flimsy reality, which can only be accessed in the imagery and symbolisms that carefully cascade every line of the poem (Bakker 12). In a sense, the persona addresses a lover who is concealed until the last line in the poem when it is revealed in the longing to have lover everlasting. The last line asserts, “…and I knew we would be lovers forever.” This is not a real relationship because, from the very beginning, the persona is dealing with bewildering feelings and a deep sense of empty longing for something inaccessible.

Curbelo’s poem “Fall” paints a picture of the season “Fall” but exhibits numeracy of objects falling to reveal the intricate aspects of the season. The only way to access the distinction of the type of Fall expressed in the poem is to analyze the myriad imagery and symbolisms the poet has used. She describes the Fall as “the vestige of some elemental language suspended in space.” One immediately begins to understand that the Fall has more to do with cosmic rhythms and patterns of seasonal change closely associated with the season of Fall. Most of the figurative language deployed by the poet point to some phenomenon of weather or climate because she talks of the falling leaves, new snow falling, wind after a storm, clouds in the distance, and the rain.

The two poems introduce us to a new world of strange places and unfamiliar sounds and sights, which the persona interacts with, and we can only try to relate if we explore their unique cultural lenses. As the title suggests in Orphic Night, Longenbach introduces us to a walk through the darkness in which the persona only has a clear and vivid memory of visions and experiences (Iyengar 462). It is a sense of loneliness that drives the persona to experience the strange feelings and sensations out of nothing but memories of fond weather. In the same manner, the “Fall” is a reminiscence of someone describing a season or weather with its unique attributes that can be both perplexing and confounding in myriad ways. Curbelo personifies the rain as “sinking its small bright teeth into the earth.” The description sounds like the rain was eating the earth because rain always changes the ground and disrupts a lot of activity that would happen in sunny weather. It is perplexing how the persona describes the rain and immediately refuses the same descriptions to offset the continuity of our imagination. She says, “It was not rain… not a stone…though I could feel the weight of it.” The continuum of our imagination into the weather condition is suddenly disrupted because stones do not fall from the sky and perhaps the persona is talking about snowfall.

Familiar situations and interactions can be very protracted when portrayed in a unique manner through the immersion of deep imagination and creative thinking.  The two poets have done a great deal of work to embody commonplace aspects of the weather through an imaginative mind to take us through aspects that baffle and confound our planar world view of the ordinary and familiar to an extraordinary and grotesque portrayal of the same aspects of the weather. A walk through the night can be a very exciting thing when one recounts of the bright face of the moon in the sky dotted with millions of stars. Nevertheless, it could be scary and strange when one recounts the reflected image of the moon refracted on the water and “…Pried open, green, a pair of eyes.” The strange night with eyes looking into our very own like a monster can be scary. Orphic night thus makes for an experience we silently never want to encounter.

Both poems capture the essential complexity and uncertainty that has secretly crept into the culture of the post-modern western society created by the ceaseless innovation and scientific progress. Society is no longer a unidirectional and planar scene of the Newtonian worldview but a relativistic arena with endemic duality and countercurrents. It is this essential post-modern view manifesting complexity that both poets have struggled so skillfully to give a delicate depiction. Curbelo describes the Fall through the lens of objects and feelings rather than plainly in the ordinary sense of a season. In the same manner, Longenbach paints a picture of a walk through the night as a very scary and strange experience than we readily admit. Night walks are associated with risks but not the kind of risks the persona encounters. Longenbach describes the refracted face of the moon and the double green eyes that conjure images of monstrous creatures typical of horror scenes. Both Curbelo and Longenbach are contemporary poets whose keen observation and immense creativity has captured a glimpse of what can be depicted as futurism and post-modernism.

From the first line in Longenbach’s poem, one can notice some deeply laid anguish that characterizes the OrphicNight. The absence of perspective announces to the readers that something ominous is in the offing. The third last stanza is even more revealing because the persona is faced with obvious jeopardy. The line reads, “Longing but the need… To look away: I turned.” Desires that cannot be fulfilled leave people distraught and in great anguish, particularly when they are alone and in darkness. The combination of a lonely place and darkness is a perfect recipe for despair. Curbelo also treats the readers to a strange experience of a weather or season that cannot make the persona comfortable because it is hard to fathom the very nature of the strange season with everything falling. The persona could hear his “own name softly falling…a shining falling thing like a coin.” Such grotesque descriptions of the situation uproot us from regular patterns of civilization and its many socialized patterns of preserving and creating shared meaning.

In conclusion, through a very keen wit and sense of word choice, both Curbelo and Longenbach have treated to new experiences and new interactions with nature in manners strange to culture. The grotesque imagery of and symbolisms in the two poems can give us a glimpse into the complexity and uncertainty that color our post-modern literary tropes that have emerged in the era of relativity. The two poets embody free-ranging sensibility and rich imaginative honesty that has breathed new life in the uniquely poised post-modern poetry in the contemporary order of uncertainty and incessant complexity.

Works Cited

Bakker, Egbert J. Poetry in speech: orality and Homeric discourse. Cornell University Press,  2018.

Faulkner, Sandra L. Poetic inquiry: Craft, method and practice. Routledge, 2019.

Iyengar, Sunil. “A Primer for Poets & Readers of Poetry by Gregory Orr, and: How Poems Get    Made by James Longenbach.” The Hopkins Review 12.3 (2019): 460-464.