Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Some bugs also may occur together as primary entities or as secondary conditions to one another. Proper patient and disease management requires a comprehensive assessment of both objective and subjective clinical manifestation to come up with the correct diagnosis. Identification of patients disease is not only limited to primary diagnosis. Differential diagnosis has to be made since several diseases present with similar clinical symptoms. Differential diagnosis helps in preventing misdiagnosis and improper treatment. It, therefore, requires a proper assessment to identify the primary disease and make differential diagnoses for patients presenting with multiple signs and symptoms involving more than one system.

The patient mentioned above presents with both respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms. There is coughing, shortness of breath, sputum production, wheezing, increased anteroposterior diameter, flattened diaphragm, and increased blood pressure, history of smoking and peripheral vascular disease. To manage this patient properly, both primary and differential diagnosis has to be made based on the clinical presentation and diagnostic tests.

 

 

Differential Diagnosis

 

 

Chronic bronchitis

 

Chronic bronchitis is an inflammatory disease of the airways characterized by the presence of cough and production of sputum for over three months. Shortness of breath and increased respiratory rate are other primary characteristics of these conditions (Kim & Criner, 2015). It is common in children but also affects adults. Both the past and present history of smoking and pneumonia can lead to the development of bronchitis. The patient mentioned above in the case study presentation with a chronic cough, sputum production, shortness of breath, current history of smoking and history of pneumonia. With all these signs and symptoms, chronic bronchitis can be considered as one of differential diagnosis.

Asthma

 

Asthma is an upper respiratory condition that is characterized by acute shortness of breath due to the narrowed airway. The narrowing of the airway is either due to obstruction by foreign objects such as secretions or inflammation of the airway structures (Postma, Dirkje, & Klaus, 2015). A cough and sputum are present in a patient with asthma, and any trigger can result in an increased rate of respiration. The disease is most common with a patient with a history of smoking and other pathological conditions involving both respiratory and cardiovascular systems. For the above case study, there is shortness of breath, coughing and sputum production. Smoking has also been reported with a history of pneumonia and hypertension. Therefore, asthma should be considered as a diagnosis for this patient.

 

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

 

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a disease defined by acute airway narrowing or total obstruction by either inflammation, different objective or secretions such as blood and mucus (Divo et al., 2015). The symptoms of this disease include chronic productive cough, shortness of breath, wheezing, prolonged respiratory phases, increased anteroposterior diameter and a higher rate of respiration (Bradstreet, & Parkman, 2016). History of smoking, respiratory conditions and cardiovascular disease increases the risk of developing this disease. The present case involves a patient with similar characteristics of the chronic obstructive respiratory condition and therefore should be considered during diagnosis.

 

Emphysema

 

Emphysema is a lower respiratory disease characterized by an abnormal enlargement, distention of the alveolar, and narrowing of the airway. This distention leads to increased dead space in the lungs reducing pulmonary capillary bed. This result in increased pulmonary blood supply, therefore, raising the blood pressure (Pahal & Sharma, 2018). Patients will have increased blood pressure, shortness of breath, cough and respiratory distress (Divo et al., 2015). The risk for alveolar impairment is increased by smoking and a history of respiratory disease. For the above patient, the signs of emphysema are present and therefore should be considered as one of the diagnosis.

 

Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome

 

This is a condition in which the symptoms of both asthma and COPD are present or overlapping. The symptoms include a cough, sputum production, tachypnea, apnea, and wheezing. The causes of these symptoms include infections, the presence of secretions in the airway or inflammatory obstruction due to an allergic reaction (Postma, Dirkje, & Klaus, 2015). Lifestyle practice such smoking can lead to these conditions. The present case has all the symptoms, and predisposing factors hence should be considered as one of the diagnosis.

 

Primary diagnosis

 

The primary diagnosis for the patient in the case study is emphysema. The characteristic symptom of this condition is damaged alveoli and narrowed airway resulting in impaired gaseous exchange in patients (Pahal & Sharma, 2018). Signs and effects of abnormal gaseous exchange are observed in patients such as shortness of breath, productive cough, increased respiratory rate, wheezing and respiratory distress (Bradstreet, & Parkman, 2016). Factors such as respiratory infections, and smoking increase the chance of one getting this disease (Tran et al., 2015). The presented case meets all the signs and symptoms of emphysema.

 

Diagnostic Tests

 

Diagnostic tests to confirm the presence of this condition include radiological and arterial blood gases. A chest X-ray is performed to visualize the patency of the airway and other pulmonary structures, and, to rule other chest conditions. (Hellbach et al., 2015). Arterial Blood Gases test are performed to measure the effectiveness of gaseous exchange in the lungs. Sputum analysis is done to identify the cause of pulmonary impairment. Pulmonary Function Test is done to assess the performance of the lungs.

 

Treatment and management

 

The goal of treating emphysema is to eliminate symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment involved both pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches. The pharmacological approach includes the use of corticosteroid sand bronchodilators to clear secretions and prevent inflammations that cause airway narrowing (Pahal & Sharma, 2018). Antibiotics are also given to eliminate infectious agents from the respiratory system. Antihypertensive drugs are also provided to reduce elevated systolic blood pressure (Hillas, Perlikos, Tsiligianni, & Tzanakis, 2015). Non-pharmacological approaches are aimed at preventing the symptoms from progressing. They include suctioning of secretions if present. Advising the patient to quit smoking is also one of the methods of reducing the severity of the condition.

Genes and Environment

Influence of Genes and Environment on Ted Bundy’s Behavior

Did you know that Theodore Robert Bundy was an American serial killer? Ted Bundy was born of an unwed woman by the name Eleanor Louise Cowell in 1946 in the United States of America. Ted Bundy grew up knowing that his grandparents were his parents and his mother was introduced to him as his elder sister. He later obtained his bachelor’s degree from Utah University in his early adulthood. He grew up in a challenging environment such that his childhood experience made him grow up into a bad person. The identity of his real father was not disclosed to him in the childhood period of which made him lack good parental direction. When his mother got married, the stepfather used to bully him due to his shininess personality. This paper will discuss how the environment and genes contribute to change in behavior in line with Ted Bundy an American serial killer.

A serial killer is an individual who performs more than three murder cases in a month out of own abnormal selfish gain. Ted Bundy was a serial killer who admitted to having done thirty murder cases in less than four years and several rape cases. His childhood environment greatly influenced his later behavior, for instance, he grew up in a lonely environment which made him a psychopath. The loneliness nature made Ted Bundy be involved in negative behavior like watching a porn video and this resulted in him being a sexually aggressive individual. Ted Bundy suffered attachment disorder in his childhood experience as a result of his mother being introduced to him as his older sister (Owen and Michael 2006). When his mother, known to Ted as his sister, got married, the stepfather used to bully him so much and this tortured his mind and made him lack good parental direction. In relation to his behavior, his grandfather was of raging temper day in day out.

Everyone in the family suffered from the violent acts of Bundy’s grandfather hence making the family unstable both physically and emotionally. Once in his childhood, Ted Bundy witnessed his grandfather raping Louise his mother of which contributed to his suffering both physical and psychological torture. The raping instinct later surfaced in Ted Bundy’s life and so many women were raped and killed. The extraordinary abuse and extreme violence from his grandfather made Ted Bundy grow into a serial killer and rapist. At this point, Ted Bundy’s behavior is attributed to his uneventful childhood environment.

Ted Bundy started violent actions when he was at a tender age. In school, Bundy wanted to hit his fellow scout boy with a stick from behind for no reason. According to Holt, in “conversation with a killer” he describes Bundy as an individual who likes scaring people, bullying them and getting them in pain. As a teen, Bundy liked laying traps for people to fall in, for instance, he was fond of digging holes in the ground, putting sticks insides and covering the hole with vegetation. His traps once injured a girl who fell into the hole and injured her leg to the extent of going into shock due to excessive bleeding (Rowe and David 1994). Ted Bundy also had shoplifting behavior at a tender age; he could do this for the things he admired and had no money to buy them. He wanted to live a life beyond his parent’s means and therefore turned out to be a thief as a result.

The stealing behavior is linked to both the genetic makeup and environment he was raised from. The desire to have fancy things in one’s life originates from inside and the lack of money to buy the fancy things he wanted to be was environmentally based.

Ted Bundy’s education also greatly influenced his career as a serial killer at a later stage after college. Ted Bundy studied law at the University of Puget Sound and while pursuing his psychology degree, he gained more knowledge and insights about how to isolate criminals. The law career made him perform the murder, later represent himself in court and escape custody because he knew all the tricks surrounding the law field (Birch et al 1998). Ted Bundy as an undergraduate student at the Washington University majored in psychology which helped him to manipulate people’s minds when performing his killing acts. He used a high level of psychology to play around with women’s minds, full of pretense that made women sympathize and draw near him without knowing his soul intentions. It is said that sometimes he used crutches, not that he is injured but for women to see him and sympathize with him thus drawing near to help and took this as an advantage to rape them.

Health Promotion in Action

Health Promotion in Action

Health Promotion in Action

Introduction

The world is currently experiencing a triple disease burden which constitutes aspects such as the communicable disease’ unfinished agenda, re-emerging and newly emerging disorders, and the unprecedented increase in the prevalence of non-communicable chronic illnesses. There is, thus, an increasing need to provide high standards of care through health promotion. Various aspects outside the sector of healthcare affect health; these include political, economic, and social factors (Kim & Nahar, 2018). These factors consequently determine the setting in which people work, live, grow, and age, and the approaches that aim to address people’s health needs. Therefore, to attain the best healthcare standards, Kim & Nahar (2018) underscores the need for a detailed holistic approach which extends beyond the usual curative care and involves stakeholders, health providers, and communities. Holistic healthcare approaches aim to empower people to be responsible for their health and promote public health leadership and inter-sectoral efforts intended to establish good health policies and develop effective health frameworks. The elements mentioned above capture the essence or nature of health promotion. The purpose of this research paper is to delineate the differences between health promotion and health education, identify a health promotion referral organization in the community, and provide a review of the organization’s activities in the community.

Health Promotion and Health Education

 

Health promotion refers to the process of fostering an individual’s capacity to assume control over his health as a strategy to improve one’s overall health (Samara, Anderson, & Aro, 2019). Health promotion incorporates interventions at the political, social, organizational, and personal level to encourage adaptations that aim to protect or improve health. Health promotion, thus, assumes a more comprehensive health-promoting approach because it employs multi-sectoral methods in addressing health issues and involves different players. Health promotion focuses on responding to developments that have an indirect or direct bearing on health, for instance, cultural belief, environments, differences in consumption patterns, and inequalities (Chafjiri, Shirinkam, & Karimi, 2018). Health education, on the other hand, refers to a consciously developed opportunity for learning which incorporates some mode of communication designed to better health literacy by facilitating the development of life skills and improving knowledge associated with community and individual health. Health education is, therefore, not limited to data dissemination (health-related); it also promotes self-efficacy, skills, and motivation which are necessary for health improvement (Kim & Nahar, 2018). Health education enhances the dissemination of data regarding the underlying environmental, economic, and social conditions that impact health. Health education, hence, aims to provide health knowledge and information to communities and individuals and provide individuals with skills that enable them to embrace healthy behaviors voluntarily (Chafjiri, Shirinkam, & Karimi, 2018).

 

Health Promotion Referral Organization and its Application

 

One primary health promotion referral organization in the community is the American Diabetes Association, commonly abbreviated as ADA. The ADA is a nonprofit organization based in the USA whose aim is to educate the public about the disease and help individuals diagnosed with Diabetes by funding studies focused on managing, curing, and preventing Diabetes (Felicia, 2019). The organization conducts various populace health management programs designed to improve health. Some of these initiatives include Diabetes INSIDE and the Risk Test campaign. Diabetes INSIDE is a long-term strategy for the ADA which aims to translate over seventy-eight years of the institution’s advocacy and science into practice by reinforcing the country’s health care system to better populace outcomes for persons with Diabetes. The objective of Diabetes INSIDE is to stimulate, effectuate, and encourage the betterment of health in various systems of health care, public health sectors, and the multiple organizations and stakeholders dedicated to improving the outcomes of Diabetes. To achieve this goal, Diabetes INSIDE uses health services and population health research approaches, activities, and tools to better the care quality for diabetes and populace outcomes in various health care organizations. Diabetes INSIDE employs the use of populace health information analytics and science to tailor interventions towards demographics, resources, goals, and needs of health care partners and populaces they serve (Felicia, 2019). Some of these interventions include self-management (patients) education and support programs, provider professional development, multidisciplinary team coaching, and QI training for professionals (health care). Other intervention strategies include dissemination and recognition strategy and community-integrated health strategies. Felicia (2019), in her review, provides an example of the efficacy of QI data in delivering population health results following the application of Diabetes INSIDE at Parkland Health & Hospital System located in Texas. The QI project’s focus was to evaluate the introduction of insulin to individuals with unmanaged Diabetes. Some of the QI interventions used during the initiative include EHR data for tracking and identifying individuals with uncontrolled Diabetes, previsit arrangements for insulin introduction purposes, provider training and education, and shared medical appointments. After the intervention, there was a significant increase (twenty-four percent) in insulin initiation at the population level (Felicia, 2019).

During the year 2016, ADA, through a joint effort between them and the Ad Council, AMA, and CDC launched the Risk Test Campaign (Felicia, 2019). The campaign focused on promoting public awareness of the National DPP (Diabetes Prevention Program) and prediabetes to minimize the prevalence of T2D. Today, the American Diabetes Association manages the Risk Test Crusade. The program allows individuals to ascertain their prediabetes risks with th help of online tools that require around one minute to complete (Felicia, 2019). One can also conduct the assessment using paper format. The online assessment tool provides individuals with a significantly high prediabetes risk (score ≥5) with data on how to approach the issue with a physician and resources to enroll for an online or local National DPP (Felicia, 2019). People at a significantly low prediabetes risk (score <5) are typically provided with programs and information that promote healthy living, caregiver services and toolkits, invitations to regular rescreening and advocate tools. The American Diabetes Association aims to reach communities and populations that at a significantly high risk of Type 2 diabetes and prediabetes; this includes people aged between forty-five and sixty-five years and the ethnic minority populaces, for instance, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asian Americans. Currently, the ADA is involving members, stakeholders, partners, and supporters through different ways, for example, community-based and health care provider outreach and social media platforms to ignite this campaign (Felicia, 2019).

 

Conclusion

 

Health promotion is a crucial concept that extends beyond the provision of health care. Health promotion aims to establish supportive environments, reinforce community actions, reorient health care services, and develop personal skills. Health promotion operates through active and concrete communities by setting priorities, planning and implementing strategies, and making decisions to sustain better health. Moreover, it encourages social and personal development by providing data, health education, and promoting life skills. Health education aims to provide health knowledge and information to communities and individuals and provide individuals with skills that enable them to embrace healthy behaviors voluntarily. Health promotion referral institutions such as the ADA employs different strategies such as the Risk Test campaign to improve health.

 

References

 

1. Chafjiri, R., Shirinkam, F., and Karimi, H. (2018). Investigating the effect of education on health-promoting lifestyle among the elderly of Ramsar in 2017. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 7(3), 612–617.

2. Felicia H. (2019). 2018 Health Care and Education Presidential Address: The American Diabetes Association in the Era of Health Care Transformation. Diabetes Care, 42(3): 352-358.

3. Kim, R. W., and Nahar, V. K. (2018). A Guide for Understanding Health Education and Promotion Programs. Health Promotion Practice, 19(2), 167–169. 4. Samara, A., Andersen, P. T., and Aro, A. R. (2019). Health Promotion and Obesity in the Arab Gulf States: Challenges and Good Practices. Journal of Obesity, 1–6.

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela

Nelson Mandela was a great figure in South Africa and became the first black president. He was held behind bars for his involvement in the anti-racist movement. Mandela was also a social rights activist (Joffe 9). He also doubled his career as a politician, as well as an anthropologist. After getting involved in resistance movement while still a young person in his 20s, he joined the ANC in 1942. For over two decades, Mandela directed a very peaceful campaign that was characterized by non-violent defiance against the administration and the racist policies.

Mandela was arrested and spent over two decades in prison for his involvement as well as offences that were associated with politics. In 1963, together with De Klerk, they were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize (Angelou 7). They were given the prestigious award because of their involvement and efforts to do away with the apartheid system that rocked the nation. Mandela will be remembered for his acts which are a source of inspiration to many people, especially for his engagement in civil rights activities globally.

The Early Life of Nelson Mandela

Mandela’s father was a chief who also served as a counsellor for the tribal chiefs for many years. However, he lost both his title and fortune over a dispute between him and a local colonial magistrate (Angelou 8). At the time, the younger Mandela was mainly involved in playing the games of younger boys. He acted the make rights passage scenes using the toys that he improvised from natural materials that were easily available to him, such as clay and branches of trees.

Education

Mandela was baptized in the Methodists Church. Besides, he became the first to get an opportunity to attend school among his family members. Due to the bias of the whites, and as per the custom, he was named Nelson by his new teacher. After the death of his father, his life greatly changed (Hansford 24). Subsequently, Mandela left the carefree life that he was accustomed to. He quickly adapted to the environment with a more sophisticated surrounding (Hansford 25). He was treated well and accorded the same status and responsibilities as the other two children of the royal chief. He later took classes in a school that was next to the royal chief’s palace. He mainly studies English, geography, history, and Xhosa.

Mandela’s Political Career

Mandela welcomed the idea of circumcision to partake in his community’s customs and decided to transition from childhood to adulthood. During the proceedings, his moods changed by a speech that was delivered by Chief Meligqili who spoke very emotionally about young men by explaining that they were enslaved in their land since it was controlled by the whites (Adebajo 15). However, Mandela opined that the chief’s words never made sense but later he made a resolve to have an independent country.

Mandela became very actively involved in the anti-racist movement and joined ANC, with the goal of transforming it to grassroots movement. The party later obtained more strength from millions of rural peasants as well as the working-class who lacked voice under the prevailing regime (Adebajo 15). For over two decades, Mandela got involved in directing peaceful and nonviolent activities of defiance and the regime and the racist policies. In 1956, together with 150 other people, he was charged with treason due to the political stands and advocacy.

Prison Years and Presidency

Mandela got engaged in nonviolent protests against the racist’s policies and apartheid. He changed his views and believed that armed struggle was the only way to obtain change against the regime and the racist policies. In 1961, he made changes in the party and was dedicated to disrupt and use other tactics, such as guerrilla to end the apartheid system (Lazea, Roxana, and Camil 166). During the same period, he organized workers strike but was later arrested for leading the strike and was put behind bars for five years. He was tried again and sentenced to life imprisonment mainly for political offences, which also included the mention of sabotage.

https://nursingtermpapersonline.com/

Benefits of Soccer

Introduction

To honor the 2014 FIFA World Cup during the summer of 2014, below is a list of how soccer is beneficial to everyone. Reading the list will provide a clear understanding as to why soccer is the number one sport globally. The FIFA World Cup has dominated all media, primarily social media. Numerous people from different parts of the world could observe the frenzy everywhere.

Thesis

Watching or playing soccer is essential for the physical, social, and health conditions of individuals.

When people play or watch soccer together as friends, colleagues, or family members, it promotes bonding, which enhances social connection and interaction. For children and adults who play soccer, it allows them to be part of a Group. For instance, a sports team is significant in enabling team members to interact and learn social skills as a group (Shamoo, Baugher, & Germeroth, 2015). They can learn the difference between aggressiveness and assertiveness through team training.  Additionally, commutation is a crucial aspect of life; hence, while watching football, people exchange cheers, ideas, and spend more time together. Often people look forward to watching soccer together at home, bars, or live events.

Now that we know the social benefits of soccer, next is the health impact of playing soccer. Playing football is fun and a great workout. It increases the cardiovascular health and aerobic capacity of the players (Hang & Dongen, 2015). As well, their body fats become low, improved muscle tone, and increased bone strength. An excellent example is a fact that all 11 players in a team use their legs, torso, and head to throw the ball. According to the scenery of football game, players may be standing around, running slow or fast, and sprinting.

Now that we understand the social and health gain of soccer, it finally is the physical advantage that helps in the development of a soccer player (Macnaughton & Meldrum, 2017). The increase of endurance and stamina is vital to a player. He/she has to develop the ability to physically and mentally last long on a field. Football also increases reflex and agility. For instance, players can efficiently react to a given moment or movement. When a player switches a point to attack, the defender kicks the ball to the other side of the field.https://nursingtermpapersonline.com/

Conclusion

Today we discussed the social, physical, and health importance of football to everyone. Both the players and spectators benefit from soccer sports. It allows people to communicate and interact with each other. I hope next time we will focus on understanding how soccer game workers, including the number of players involved.

 

References

  1. Hang, J., and Dongen, K. V. (2015). Friendship Network Centrality and the Performance of Soccer Players: The Role of Cognitive Accuracy. Journal of Human Performance , 28 (3), 265-279.
  2. Macnaughton, J. F., and Meldrum, J. (2017). Dreams of Social Inclusion True Experiences of Street Soccer through Fictional Representation. CReative Aproaches to Research , 10 (1), 52-70.
  3. Shamoo, A. E., Baugher, W., and Germeroth, R. M. (2015). Sports Medicine for Coaches and Athletes: Soccer. London and New York: Routledge.

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival (DACA)

Deferred Action for Childhood Arrival (DACA)

The Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) policy was created in 2012 to tackle the needs of the undocumented and young immigrants who moved to America as minors. Even though the system does not provide its target population a pathway to permanent and legal residence in the country, it offers them temporary work authorization, protection from deportations, and facilitates their application for a social security number (Gonzalez).  The beneficiaries of the program are expected to renew it every two years. Since its inception, the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) has improved education, employment opportunities, and wages for the recipients.

Analysis of how DACA Has Been Beneficial to the Undocumented People

DACA recipients are diverse as they come from distinct nationalities and regions around the globe.  However, a significant number of them come from Peru (1.1%), Mexico (79.4%), Honduras (2.3%), and Guatemala (2.6%) (Crouse).  The program has had a positive impact on their education, employment, and their living standards as discussed

Impact of DACA on Education

Researchers in 2013 found out that the DACA enhanced its beneficiary’s access to educational opportunities, which have improved their enrollment and education status in the United States. According to Scholars at the Migration Policy Institute, approximately 37% of the program recipients in 2017 had registered with the postsecondary education program (Crouse). The researchers also found out that DACA beneficiaries, just like their US-borne adults, are more likely to enroll in college (18% vs. 20%)( Crouse). Nonetheless, they are subjected to steep tuition fees, a factor that is somehow threatening their enrollment rates.

The situation is worsened further by a lack of federal financial support, forcing most of them to depend on high-interest private loans, private scholarships, and personal savings to fund their college-related and tuition expenses (Crouse).  Nonetheless, some states such as Michigan are implementing tuition-equity policies to minimize the financial pressure incurred by undocumented students in their endeavor to access quality education (Crouse). Despite these challenges, young immigrants, to be precise DACA beneficiaries, are among the most educated generation of the United States, reflecting the importance of the program on the undocumented immigrants.

Impact on Employment

DACA recipients benefit from a temporary work permit, which enables them to engage in the labor market fully. Wong and his colleagues state that 91% of individuals enrolled in the program are employed in the various sectors of the United States economy, and can access high paying jobs that are in line with their training and educational qualifications. Accordingly, some through the work permit opt to start their businesses. For instance, in 2016, the rate of DACA recipients opening their companies was 3.1%, a rate that outpaces American citizens with business creation (Wong et al.). Therefore, the temporary work permits offered by DACA not only enables individuals to get well-paying jobs and concentrate in their field of specializations but also allows them to start businesses that provide employment opportunities to the wider population. The resultant effect is the improved economy of the nation and the living standards of the undocumented migrants and their families.

NUR 100 Get To Know a Nurse Paper

NUR 100 Get To Know a Nurse Paper

Florence Nightingale

Florence Nightingale was born in an affluent family but dedicated herself to serving humanity. She focused on developing nursing as an educative and significant element of healthcare. She was the second child in her family and her parents were Frances and William Nightingale. She was born in 1820 in Florence, Italy.  Florence received classical education, including Italian, French, and German studies (Shetty, 2016). Nightingale exhibited a strong religious conviction and excelled in school especially in multiple languages and mathematics.  She was concerned about the disadvantaged people in society. Florence Nightingale believed that  she had a calling to enhance the well-being of people  as evidenced in one of her writings titled” The highest honor is to be God’s servant and fellow worker (Shetty, 2016).”  However, her family’s intention was to marry her into a prominent family, but Nightingale’s desire was to help the sick. Therefore, she rejected proposals from suitors.

At the age of 16, Nightingale made it clear to her parents that Nursing was her profession and God’s calling.  Nightingale in 1844 enrolled at the Lutheran Hospital in Kaiserswerth Germany as a nursing student despite her parent’s objections (Shetty, 2018). In 1851, she graduated from the Hospital and in 1853, enrolled with the Sisters of Mercy in Paris for additional training.  She later returned to London and was hired as a hospital’s manager and superintendent (Alexander, 2019). The facility served poor women and the position helped her develop effective skills, such as providing competent care which she considered a basic human right. During the 1854 Crimean War, Nightingale and a group of nurses helped take care of the wounded soldiers. Nightingale and her team revolutionized the healthcare environment by improving hospital conditions.

Nightingale made several publications to inform healthcare workers about healthier medical practices. In 1859, she published “Notes on Nursing: What it is, and what it is Not.” The book offers advice on safe clinical environments and effective patient care (Alexander, 2019).  Her efforts resulted in the setting up of a fund in England to enable Nightingale teach nurses in the country.  The 1860 saw the opening of Nightingale Training School. Despite being bedridden in her later years because of illness, she continued championing safe nursing practice.

Florence Nightingale’s Contribution to the Nursing Profession

Nightingale pioneered the foundation of nursing practices. She defined nursing practices and differentiated it from other medical fields. According to Nightingale, understanding the disease process was not a nurses’ role. Instead, nurses’ should concentrate on knowing how to take care of their patients, help them address their symptoms, and cope with the functional changes caused by their illness (UT Health, 2018). During the 1853 Crimean War, Nightingale introduced nursing concepts that formed the foundation of contemporary nursing practice. The concepts included self-care, infection control, assessment, therapeutic communication, public health advocacy, and spiritual nursing (UT Health, 2018). Nightingale required nurses to maintain a clean hospital environment and assist patients in taking care of themselves to enhance healing and promote independence. Nurses are also expected to make rounds at night assessing their patient’s condition. She considered nursing assessments the core of the profession.  Nurses must effectively communicate with their patients, show them compassion and empathy as they battle with their illness. They must incorporate the spiritual aspect in their treatment, especially for the dying patients to bring them comfort. Nurses must also advocate for significant reforms in their professions. These components continue to influence today’s nursing profession.

 Florence Nightingale’s Philosophy of Nursing

Nightingale philosophy of nursing focuses on the environment of the patient. She argued that the patient’s environment must be modified to facilitate speedy recovery. According to Nightingale, the patient’s problems were not as a result of their ailment rather their environment. The patient’s environment can be altered based on their health and care needs. Therefore, nurses must assess the needs of their patients to ensure that their environment reflects those needs.  However, her philosophy also incorporates the nursing and health component. According to Nightingale, nursing is the alteration of the patients’ environment during the illness period to offer them comfort (Sher & Akhtar, 2018).  Nurses must manage the environment of those they care to help them heal and maintain their health.

Health is an important and dynamic process of Nightingale’s philosophy. Nightingale argues that health is characterized by six elements that promote an individual well-being. They include proper light, cleanliness, organized drainage, pure water, and fresh air (Sher & Akhtar, 2018). In summary, Nightingale’s philosophy of nursing was influenced by her experiences while taking care of the injured and sick soldiers. During her care process, she realized a strong connection between the nurse, health, and the patient’s environment. Therefore, nurses must note all environmental factors that undermine the patient’s healing process and modify them. For instance, if inadequate lighting is causing increased falls, the nurse must enhance the lighting of corridors and strategic areas to minimize patients falls, improve their recovery and satisfaction levels.

 References

  1. Alexander, K.L.(2019). Florence Nightingale. National Women’s History Museum, Retrieved from https://www.womenshistory.org/education-resources/biographies/florence-nightingale
  2. Sher, A.N.A., and Akhtar, A. (2018). Clinical application of Nightingale’s theory. Journal of Clinical Research and Bioethics, 9(4), 1-3. Doi: 10.4172/2155-9627.100032
  3. Shetty, A.P. (2016). Florence Nightingale: The queen of nurses. Medical History, 4(1), 144-148.
  4. UT Health. (2018, February 28). The lady of the lamp and her contributions to modern nursing.  San Antonio the Libraries, Retrieved from https://library.uthscsa.edu/2015/02/the-lady-with-the-lamp-and-her-contributions-to-modern-nursing/

 

 

This paper will help you understand the contributions of a historical figure in the nursing  profession. Your paper should be double spaced, APA format and 1-3 pages in length. Make sure  you address each of the criteria as listed in the rubric.

Grading Rubric

Criteria Ratings Points
Identify your  historical

nursing figure  and include

important

background

information

Historical  

nursing  

figure is  

identified.  

Important  

events in life  story are  

presented. 

6 pts

Historical  

nursing  

figure is  

identified.  

Minimal  

information  about life  

story is  

presented. 

5 pts

Historical  

nursing  

figure is  

identified. No  life story  

information  is presented. 

4 pts

No historical  figure is  

identified. No  life story  

information  presented. 

0 pts

Describe the

contributions  to the nursing  profession of  your chosen

historical

figure.

Descriptive  information  about the  

historical  

figure’s  

contribution  to nursing is  included. 

6 pts

Overview of  the historical  figure’s  

contribution  to nursing is  included. 

5 pts

Minimal  

information  about the  

historical  

figure’s  

contribution  is included. 

4 pts

No  

information  about the  

historical  

figure’s  

contribution  to nursing is  included. 

0 pts

Discuss the

historical

figure’s

philosophy of  nursing.

Discussion of  the historical  figure’s  

philosophy is  presented. 

6 pts

Brief review  of the  

historical  

figure’s  

philosophy is  presented 

5 pts

Minimal  

information  about the  

historical  

figure’s  

philosophy is  presented 

4 pts

No  

information  about the  

historical  

figure’s  

philosophy is  presented. 

0 pts

Paper followed  grammar and  APA

guidelines

Fewer than 3  grammar or  APA errors 

2 pts

4-6 grammar  or APA  

errors 

1 pts

More than 6  grammar or  APA errors 

0 pts

Total points (out of 20):

How Not To Answer Moral Questions

Regan – How Not To Answer Moral Questions

Correct way of answering moral question

Introduction and thesis

Due to the ethical issues, a section of people often dismisses the likelihood of solving the underlying ethical based issues by deploying a reasoned way of arguing. They claim that moral judgments are of great concern when it comes to a personal mode of preference, views, or public-oriented opinion. In case this is the truth, the ethical way of reasoning would be of no value since a human would have fewer chances of expressing their respective opinions.  According to Tom Regan, this indeed is not the scenario or case.

Summary

It is true that moral disagreements similar to the disagreements that are of preference. For sure, this is not the case. In a situation where an individual proceeds with stating a given preference, then indeed, the individual never denies the other individual is saying that in case he or she has a contradicting preference.  Often, preferences are never mutually exclusive. On the other hand, disagreements concerning morality may not be this same perspective. For instance, where D admits that every war is not justifiable, and E contends that all of them are justifiable; in this scenario, D is in denial of what is being said by E.

A section of the philosophers, too, has admitted that this same view is not true, and every moral judgment is just a simple expression of the personal form of difference.  Regan admits this is not a fact since when inquiring about an individual’s moral statement, it is often very desirable in seeking their argument or reasoning. For example, the inquest should seek where it is not desirable, such as personal statement preference.

Evaluation

Based on the moral form of judgments, do not just represent the expression about the personal form of difference, then it abides by the very right. Hence, it is impossible to decide on a wrong based on the personal form of difference. On the same note, it is impossible to answer the moral types of questions by just admitting about liking or not liking something.

Impact of covid-19 on food security

Impact of covid-19 on food security

Experience Ordering Food from the Food Pantry

Food Pantries enhance an individual’s access to food, especially those whose resources are inadequate to buy food for themselves. These pantries have a stock of various vegetables, fruits, and food to enhance healthy eating. However, I have never used food pantries before because of the feelings of shame and blame that characterize food insecurity. I also never wanted my peers to think that I cannot provide my needs. However, I wanted to experience the difficulties or ease of ordering food from food pantries because of curiosity.  My objective was to get at least two bags of groceries. I also wanted to find out if these foods were fresh and tasted like those I acquired from supermarkets or grocery stores.

My experience was quite unpleasant because of the waiting time to get served. The demand for food staff was high because of the increasing food demand triggered by the COVID-19 crisis. The pandemic resulted in some people losing their jobs because of business shutdowns. As a result, people were scrambling for limited food. Thus, I waited patiently for my turn to be served and got the products I needed.  With the social distancing measures, the number of volunteers in the food pantry had considerably declined, causing a slowdown in service delivery. Food pantries depend on a network of volunteers to distribute food boxes and create these food boxes. But their numbers had considerably declined because people are no longer comfortable in group settings. The groceries were not different from those bought in grocery stores. They were fresh and met my nutritional needs.

What I expected to Feel and What Surprised Me

 I expected to feel out of place because I have never purchased food from a food pantry before. However, my experience was different. For instance, I was surprised by the long queues of vehicles waiting for food. The sight was mind-blowing and eye-opener that still lingers in my mind.  It helped me realize the impact of the pandemic on people’s food security. Maintaining social distancing measures, I had a conversation with a lady who shared her concerns with me.   She was willing to wait as long as she had food for her loved ones. She also asserted that the food pantries are struggling to restock their shelves, but individuals in the community are going out of their way to assist with cash donations and farm produce.  I realized that people are willing to help each other in times of crisis.

What I Learned Throughout the Process

I learned valuable lessons from the whole process. I realized that the future is always unpredictable. I was surprised to see families that would never visit food pantries in a queue waiting for food supply. Because of the current circumstances, they were forced to acquire food from the food pantries. I always thought that challenges like wildfires, earthquakes, or hurricanes would increase food demand from food pantries. These events often affect a specific region in the country, and food banks from other parts support them through various donations. However, the pandemic is something different, because every state was affected, and the population suffered because of unemployment. They depend on the food pantries to meet their nutritional needs because they have exhausted their savings.

Disability and Religion

Disability and Religion

Disability in the eyes of Religion

Christian traditions consider disability as simply a punishment for sin, a test of faith, or a potential miraculous healing power and inspiration. However, according to the Bible, God is proactively on the side of the poor and the oppressed. For example, Jesus lived among people with disabilities like the blind and deaf as well as the mentally ill, and those who were typically considered unwelcome. Jesus served them and humbled himself toward them, which made him greater in the eyes of God. Thus, there is nothing naturally wrong with a person who experiences a disability. Society’s narrow view about disability is attributed to people’s unexamined assumptions that influence their ability to engage with people with disabilities more fully. For example, stereotypical portrayals of individuals using wheelchairs or those with developmental impairments make them ignore the diversity of disability. Whether it is visible or invisible, everybody has a form of a scar or a limp.  Thus, this diversity and uniqueness does not qualify anyone to be less human. Society often forgets that individuals with a disability have other identity characteristics, like gender, ethnicity, and political views. Thus, disabled people should not be viewed as abnormal.

Disability is a normal aspect of human experience, something that all people experience at some point in their lives. Disability theology introduces a significant shift in religious engagement with disability through Eiesland’s theology of disability of the Disabled God. This perspective offers an alternative to conventional images of God and opposes the belief that disability is in any way a result of sin. Referring to the story about Jesus and the resurrection, it is evident that disabled people should not be excluded from worship or leadership. This is because Jesus’ scars did not make him ineligible for continued leadership. By virtue of disabled people’s complicated bodies and experiences with social injustice, Eiesland argues that they are endowed with epistemological privilege that allows them to understand things about themselves, God, and life that non‐disabled people may never experience. Rather than seeing physical impairment as a problem that needs fixing, this perspective shows that exclusion, intolerance, and injustice, as well as people and structures, are the main factors that perpetuate social inequality against disabled people.

Eiesland’s theology of disability demonstrates that God is for or on the side of people with disabilities. And perhaps Christians need to attend to issues of injustice and exclusion and send a clear message about the intrinsic values of disabled people, such as they are not a problem but rather part of the goodness of creation of God. Eiesland’s view that God (the one who is intimately powerful and all-knowing) even experiences disability is an essential call for change on ways society handles disability issues. This theology is founded on constructive ideas embodied in the limits and social models and deconstructs the impairments of the medical and moral models.

 Discussion Questions

  1. In your opinion, do all people experience some level of physical impairment themselves? Explain
  2. According to the article, “the most astonishing fact is, of course, that Christians do not have an able‐bodied God as their primal image. Rather, the Disabled God promising grace through a broken body is the center of piety, prayer, practice, and mission.” Do you think this true? Why or why not?
  3. Do you think the church has done enough to handle the issue of disability and in what ways should the church fight forms of injustice encountered by people with disabilities?