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Diabetes Mellitus is a type of metabolic disorder that can be determined by the presence of chronic hyperglycemia which is accompanied by some kind of impairment in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins. The origin of Diabetes Mellitus can vary differently in individuals but can always include the defects in either insulin secretion or response or in both at the same time. Students who are pursuing nursing or nursing TAFE courses are made to learn about diabetes mellitus, one of the disorders among people.

Before we go on and discuss its pathophysiology and subsequent components, let us try to understand what different types of diabetes are there.

Classification of Diabetes Mellitus

Given below are the different types of diabetes mellitus:

Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is characterised through the beta cell destruction which is caused by the autoimmune process that usually leads towards absolute insulin deficiency. The presence of islet cell, anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase or insulin antibodies that identify the autoimmune process specifically leading to beta destruction.

Clinical Features

Type 1 symptoms typically include weight loss, constipation fatigue, polyurea, polydipsia, blurred vision, cramps, polyphagia, and candidiasis. Long-lasting type 1 DM patients are typically susceptible to microvascular complications.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The occurrence of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus holds relative importance in identifying the defects of insulin secretion as well as peripheral action within the hormone. If an individual is suffering from Type 2 DM, then there can be cases of hypertension and dyslipidemia.

Clinical Features

The symptoms of Type 2 DM carry a high risk of large vessel atherosclerosis with a common depiction of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Most of the patients suffer from cardiovascular diseases as well as end-stage renal disease.

Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Gestational diabetes mellitus identifies women who develop diabetes mellitus during gestation. Women who develop symptoms of Type 1 during pregnancy and those women who have asymptomatic Type 2 DM during pregnancy are considered under Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Typically in the cases with most women who develop GDM, the disorder identifies its onset during the third trimester of the pregnancy. Students in their clinical practices usually come across such conditions where they have to prepare a nursing plan and provide them with proper medical care.

Other Types

There are other different types of diabetes mellitus where specific etiologies are grouped together. Such a group identifies specific individuals with having genetic defects of beta-cell function or defects of insulin action. Such type usually occurs in individuals who are having diseases of exocrine pancreas or specific dysfunctions associated with other endocrinopathies, pancreatic dysfunction which is caused by chemicals, infections or drugs.

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