Cognitive Psychology And Research Methods:

Cognitive Psychology And Research Methods:

 Outline each of the three models of memory (approx 500 – 700 words per model – does not have to be an even split):

·  MSM:

o  Describe (briefly) key structures/processes (SM, STM, LTM)

o  Briefly explain how model works & it’s main claims (3 separate, unitary stores, emphasis on rehearsal)

o  Use evidence to illustrate/support (eg, studies showing differences between stores, eg, capacity, duration, encoding)

o  Evaluate using evidence, eg, Clive Wearing – shows multiple LTM stores, so cannot be unitary; flashbulb memories don’t require rehearsal; LTM used in STM tasks

o  Overly simplistic; doesn’t explain how different types of info might be processed, eg, visual/acoustic (see WMM); provides good foundation for other models/research; chunking useful technique.

·  WMM:

o  Link to MSM – challenges notion of unitary, passive STM

o  Describe each component (briefly)

o  Provide evidence to support model & illustrate components, eg, dual-tasking, articulatory suppression tasks, evidence for central executive

o  Evaluate using evidence, eg, EVR good with reasoning, bad with decision-making, so more than one central executive?  Reliance on case studies (unique – not generalisable); brain damaged patients – no before/after comparison, brain trauma may influence performance; doesn’t really explain processes; but has good application, eg, dyslexia; advancement over STM

·  LoP:

o  Link to previous models – agrees that memory is active (like WMM), but disagrees with structural models; challenges the MSM’s reliance on maintenance rehearsal

o  Offers alternative view – memory as by-product of processing (therefore long/short-term retention, rather than long/short-term memory stores)

o  Explain levels – shallow vs deep processing

o  Illustrate using evidence, eg, Hyde & Jenkins, Perfetti & Elias, Palmere, et al.

o  Evaluate – no independent measurement of depth – eg, Tyler – depth vs effort; circularity of argument; criticism by Eysenck that model only describes what’s happening, but recent studies explain that elaborative rehearsal enriches memory by linking it into pre-existing network of semantic association.

Power Point Presentation

Power Point Presentation

PowerPoint Presentation

· Community Assessment

· Discuss community and public health challenges to improving health outcomes.

· Illustrate an interdisciplinary approach to improve health outcomes of the community.

·  Examine information technology systems used to identify, communicate, and address health concerns of the community.

· Examine evidence-based practices associated with improving outcomes in community and public health.

· Illustrate the impact that barriers to healthcare access and challenges to improve health outcomes have on community and public health.

· Use evidence-based practices to guide health teaching, health counseling, screening, outreach, disease and outbreak investigation, referral, and follow-up throughout the lifespan.

· Minimum 10/maximum 15 slides, including speaker notes, excluding the title and reference slides.

Nutrition Health And Wellness

Nutrition Health And Wellness

Intext citations please.
References at the end

Instructions: Each item must have at least 5 complete sentences. Must have in-text citation.

Body Weight & Physical Status: How does excess body weight affect Body Systems? Describe the mechanisms (physiological mechanism of how and why) of extra body weight on each body system. Must include in-text citations.

Cardiovascular (CV) 

Gastrointestinal (GI) System

Musculoskeletal System

Endocrine System

Immune System

Barriers and ChallengesIdentify 3 barriers and challenges to losing weight in the U.S. Describe how and why each identified barrier and challenge affect losing weight? Must include in-text citations




Cultural Considerations: Identify 3 different cultures. Describe how and why each culture influence weight and weight loss with clients in each culture. Must include in-text citations.




Advice for Mark: What would you suggest helping Mark achieve a healthy weight? Must include in-text citations

Government, Health, Education, Environment, Nursing, Policy, Health Care, Workforce

Government, Health, Education, Environment, Nursing, Policy, Health Care, Workforce

Redesigning Policies To Increase Nursing Retention Research Paper Samples
Type of paper: Research Paper


(NRS 441V: Professional Capstone)
– Abstract
A sizeable research shows that the currently witnessed nursing retention problems have significantly hampered the provision of healthcare across the United States. Nursing shortage is directly tethered to the low retention rates and not unless drastic steps are taken to avert this problem, the entire healthcare system is set to experience a hard time ahead. Therefore, this paper intends to explore what are the probable causes of this problem and subsequently give recommendations on the best evidence-based approaches to resolve the issue. Overwhelming evidence shows high levels of work stress and dissatisfaction are the primary causes of this problem. Attrition rates and early retirements in nursing are very high and as such; this paints a clear image of a less satisfied workforce. Therefore, to resolve this problem, there should be a collaborative effort between the government and the hospital management to improve the working conditions of the nurses through increased incentives, remuneration and friendly workforce management policies.
– Problem Description

Picot question
Will redesigning nursing workforce policies help to increase nursing retention rates?
Population: Nurses
Intervention: Redesigning policies
Comparison: Existing nursing workforce policies
Outcome: Increased nursing retention rates
Amidst a biting nursing shortage across the entire health system, one of the problems that are leading to the severity of the problem is the inability to retain nurses. Nursing retention has affected the whole healthcare system with high quitting rates and early retirements. Workplace dissatisfaction has been one of the factors that have occasioned the problem of retention. Human population has increased tremendously within the past decades, and this has put a lot of strain on the current workforce, leading to untold workplace stress and hence lack of motivation. Patients have been the biggest losers as hospitals are grappling the nursing shortage. As a result, the quality of care received by patients has radically deteriorated, and this translates to diminished patient outcomes. For instance, some of the healthcare facilities are compelled to refuse patients or undertake pre-mature hospital discharges as a way to reduce the workload for the current force.
– Solution Description
Evidently this problem has its roots in policies. The government and other healthcare stakeholders underestimated population growth and as such failed to take proactive measures aimed at catering for the health of the ever-increasing population. Therefore, as a solution, there needs to be a policy change at institutional level and governmental level. Managers of healthcare institutions should adopt nursing schedules that aim at reducing workplace stress, perhaps through reducing work hours per nurse. On the other hand, hospital managers should implement ‘performance-pays’ as a way of rewarding nurses who perform outstandingly and subsequently motivating the nursing staff. On the other hand, the government should adopt policies that make nursing a prestigious profession in a bid to attract more people to enroll for nursing courses. This can be done through providing educational advancement opportunities for the current nursing workforce and increasing salaries for nurses. Likewise, the government should avail more educational opportunities for young people who intend to study nursing in colleges. Provision of incentives such as loans and scholarships can attract more young people to enroll for nursing courses, as a way of securing healthcare in the future. By so doing, the healthcare system will manage to reduce quitting levels and foster higher retention levels.
– Implementation Plan
One key aspect of ensuring nursing retention and minimizing the cost of replacing the quitting nurses is to develop a strategy through policy making that can enable nursing as a profession compete for the top cream in the job market and education sector. On a similar note, the idea is to make nursing a profession where the welfare of the nurses is taken into account as an influencing factor in the quality of care provided. Today’s nurses are holistic and are indeed expected to serve more than just the instructions provided by the physician. They are expected to act as advocates for quality care, patient education, as well as act as leaders in their roles (Wieck et al., 2010). However, organizational cultures and the work environment have been seen as an impending factor in ensuring that the nurses perform these roles adequately.

Rationale for selecting proposed solution
The decision to adopt new policies as solutions to the ever persistent nursing shortage was based on the review of different literatures that have majored on the causes of the nursing shortage. On the other hand, interaction with the current, retired and nurses who have quit the workforce unearthed that the work environment has not been essentially supportive for the nurses. As such, the solutions lay on the need to work out the policies that can effectively provide a satisfactory work environment. Similarly, a review of the costs and benefits of implementing this solution proved that it would ultimately be viable to retain the current workforce as opposed to replacing the quitting workforce (SPENCE LASCHINGER et al., 2009). This would also act to attract new entrant into the profession especially the young people who have always had the aspirations to join nursing. The key has been to bring nursing to a level where as a profession it can compete in the job market with other professions especially in terms of pay packages and satisfactory work environments.

Supporting Literature for implementation
An aging workforce, job dissatisfaction, changing patient demographics and lack of satisfactory work environments are the primary causes of the nursing shortage today (Tillot et al., 2013). This then underlines that while the resources may be continually available, the appropriate management and distribution of these resources to key aspects of nursing has not been entrenched. This is more in line with what Renter et al. (2014) identifies as magnet designed organizations that focus on positive work environments defined by emerging needs within the professions. Continued education and attractive pay packages are the major aspects that can be adopted from the magnet designed organizations that would go a long way in facilitating the workplace that motivates the workforce.
On the other hand, an organizational culture defines how well the policies will be implemented and adopted to completion. This brings to the fore the critical role of the Nurse Manager in ensuring full adoption of the policies that will create an enabling environment for nurses across all diversity in demographics and ideologies. According to Wieck et al. (2010), the Nurse Manager must provide channels that link the new nurses to the experienced workforce in such a way that they are nurtured in skill and leadership. This, Wieck et al. (2010) notes would be one of the intrinsic sources of motivation of the young nurses by placing more responsibility on them and giving them a platform where they can be involved in decision-making and policy reviewing.
In Dunn (2012), the relationship between the nurse and the patient plays a crucial role in the outcome. However, the relationship can only work well when the nurse is provided with an environment that alleviates fatigue and psychological stress. Such an environment should give the nurse the freedom to make decisions that suit the patient without necessarily relying on the instructions provided by nurse leaders or physicians. This autonomy can however impact negatively especially when the welfare of the nurse is sidelined SPENCE LASCHINGER et al. (2009). Nurses may potentially use the autonomy to make decisions that compromise on the quality of care especially by omitting procedures when under pressure to serve more than one patient. As such, Dunn (2012) calls for collaborative cultures within the workforce. The author also notes that if nurses have to work collaboratively with other specialties in healthcare, the utmost aspect is providing them with sustainable pay packages that are at par with other professionals within healthcare. Along this view, then all indications point to a particular weakness in policies as opposed to availability of resources. Restructuring the nurse’s education system, the salary and pay package system and the work environment will essentially provide the short-term and long-term solution to the nursing shortage.

Description of implementation logistics
Nurturing leadership, open up avenues for continued education and sustainable pay packages that can match other professions are three major strategies that need to be considered when thinking about the welfare of the nurse. This begins with creating organizational cultures that support independent decision-making and collaborative approaches in delivering care. Nurses need to be appreciated not as assistants to the physicians but equal partners. When this is achieved, motivation is gained, and the work environment supports nurturing leadership for nurses. On the other hand, emerging technological changes require that nurses and physicians be allowed to gain continued education so as to remain relevant in the care they provide (Dunn, 2012). This implies that governments and organizations should be in a position to provide funding for such programs collaboratively and thus begins with efforts to legislate such allocations at federal and state levels.
In another perspective, wages and salaries as well as performance pays based on merits should be implemented. The level and quality of service delivery in any organization is proportional to the salaries and wages provided as well as other intrinsic motivational factors such as the performance payments. These should be retained and documented within the organizational policies through a collaborative deliberation of such payments (Dunn, 2012). At federal level, legislation should provide for such motivational payments as well as ensure that there are strict regulations that govern how these payments are awarded through merit. The full implementation at federal and organizational level will take up to 12 months considering the lobbying involved in adoption of proposed legislation. At organizational level whoever, the proposed solution should kick-off as soon as approval is granted by the leadership since current policies can still provide a significant solution for the short term. On the other hand, issues such as organizational culture that will need to be reviewed across all healthcare institutions do not require any demanding resources for adoption.

Resources required for implementation
The proposed solution is based on the adoption of policies as opposed to restructuring of any major physical infrastructure. As such, a multidisciplinary approach is required between organizational staff as well as key stakeholders on the health sector and legislative or political leadership. Through the nurse leaders and professional organizations, it will be less demanding to formulate and deliver the proposed legislative agendas that will support the proposed solution. Similarly, with the level of influence that the professional organizations and in particular the American Nurses Association wields, the lobbying of support for the legislative recommendations will be done within the proposed timeframe (Saunders, Evans & Joshi, 2005). Evaluation for this program will be based on the assessment of nurse quitting rates upon a year’s full implementation of the proposed solution. This will also provide a reflection of the positive work environment as achieved through the proposed policies.
On the other hand, evaluation will also be accessed on the enrolment trends in nursing colleges which will reflect a new passion for the course as instigated by friendlier funding and career advancement programs in the nursing curriculum. At organizational level, the evaluation will be based on the how new nurses adapt seamlessly to the organization and their ability to demonstrate good-decision making and practice autonomy. This will reflect a new found ideology for nurturing informal leadership skills within the workforce.
As identified, the nursing shortage as a problem finds its origin from the workplace environment that does not offer any motivation to the working staff. When the work environment tends to an extra level of strain to the staff, issues of dissatisfaction and work stress tend to be more rampant. The solution lies in developing strategies and policies that facilitate a more satisfactory work environment. Hence, the need to motivate the nurses by reviewing their salaries, equipping them well and the setting up of facilities and infrastructure that can significantly reduce the strain (Dave et al., 2011). At educational level, it is critical that the key stakeholders regularly make a review of the curriculum in relation to other careers. This should be aimed at trying as much as possible to place nursing profession at par with other professions in terms of career advancement plans and leadership and nurturing skills (Sheldon, 2013).
McClelland’s Human Motivation Theory identifies three major aspects that can help set up a highly motivated team. The theory identifies that a need for achievement, affiliation need and a need for power as the three major motivational factors that drive people to achieve good results within the workplace even when the tasks are overwhelming (McClelland, 1987). As such, the nursing shortage problem is solely based on the lack of a motivating environment where nurses feel as though they are subordinate to physicians and other high ranking nurses. However, the modern nurse’s role is highly holistic and independent. Thus according to McClelland’s Human Motivation Theory people are driven by different motivational factors and thus the workplace should place measures that provide such motivation.
There are those who seek to achieve better, and this should be associated with the need for increased salaries, ‘performance-pays’ and other forms of intrinsic motivation (McClelland, 1987). On the other hand, those who work to seek affiliation tend to value the relationship between them and the institution, the career or those they serve. As such, they tend to value the relationship between them and the organization. It is thus critical that the organizational provides a platform for reciprocating and safeguarding the relationship. In a similar aspect, the organization should seek to nurture informal leaders from within its workforce. There are those who feel motivated by power and the need to ascend the organizations management ladder (McClelland, 1987). The organization should thus provide the channels that help identify the hardworking nurses who demonstrate leadership skills and provide them with avenues to ascend the organizational ladder as they seem to serve best at higher levels of responsibility.
McClelland’s Human Motivation Theory implies that there are three forms of motivational that drove workers in any organizational; affiliation, achievement and power. As a nurse leader, the primary focus is to identify the dominant motivating factor for each of the members within the workforce so that their role is aligned to the motivational factors. This alignment then forms the structural plan along which the members can work to achieve their motivation. While some may need to work in a collaborative environment, others will seek to work in a competitive environment (Sheldon, 2013). The nurse leader must thus be at the core to developing structures that provide such working environment where members are highly motivated. Achieving a highly motivated workforce means high retention rates and reduced nursing shortage levels.
– Evaluation Plan
Developing and evaluation is a critical component/phase of the change program. The evaluation plan acts as the baseline upon which the objectives, variables and timelines are gauged to determine how well they suit the expected final outcomes. Thus since the evaluation plan acts as the guide to achieving the outcomes, the program designer must ensure that the evaluation plan can provide information that is relevant to the program. This then avoids the wastage of time by the program implementers on information and activities that have little or no significant impact on the final outcomes (Ma, 2000). The evaluation plan is based objectives, the evaluation questions, the reasonable timelines, performance measures and methods/procedures of data collection relevant to determining how well the outcomes and the objectives have been met. The nursing-shortage-problem implementation plan focused on the change of strategy/policy as the proposed solution to the identified issue of the nursing shortage (Oliver, 2010). As such, and like in any other issue or problem in nursing practice, the identified population was the nurses, the problem was the nursing shortage occasioned by a myriad of factors, the intervention was the adoption of new policies and the timeline for the implementation was set at a reasonable one year.
Objectives and Outcomes
Objective 1: Create a positive work environment for nurses by increasing salaries and autonomy for nurses, nurturing leadership skills and providing channels for career advancements.
Outcomes: A positive work environment for nurses will help in retaining the current workforce, reduce turnover rates and subsequently increase job satisfaction. Nurturing leadership skills will act as the basis for motivation within the workplace as nurses are enabled to practice autonomy thus feeling more responsible. The evaluation plan will focus on monitoring the turnover rates in the past few years and engage former nurses who have quit the workforce to determine the reasons for their decisions to quit. On job satisfaction, the evaluation plan will engage the current nurses and nurse leaders to make a comparative analysis of their views on whether the current work environment is satisfactory or the nurses (Saunders, Evans & Joshi, 2005). The divergent views of the nurses against those of the nurse leaders will form the basis for the reviewing of the proposed solutions (Ma, 2000).
Objective 2: Increase enrollment in nurse colleges
Outcomes: The key objective for any organization is to ensure continuity in the workforce. This is achieved through retaining the current workforce and at the same time replacing the retiring or aging workforce. As such, the rates of enrollment at nursing colleges will facilitate the availability of the workforce that replaces the outgoing group while also proving the workforce that can help bridge the current gap in nurse-patient ratios. The focus will thus be on the trends in enrollment in nursing colleges nationwide. Where there are cases of low turnout at enrollment, further analysis will be done to determine the causes. Subsequently, effective measures to attract enrollment will be employed such as offering incentives to potential nurse student enrollees. Similarly, the evaluation plan will monitor the completion rates an annual basis and determine whether the rates are harmonious with the comparative enrollment rates (Saunders, Evans & Joshi, 2005). Where there is no harmony between the enrollment and completion rates, a taskforce will be formed to investigate the causes and report the findings and recommendations within six months (Ma, 2000).
The key stakeholders will be used to provide with questionnaires upon which they will be required to give their views on selected issues that are relevant to the problem in question and their role in the nursing sector. The selected participants will be picked from the current workforce and will include registered nurses, nurse practitioners, nurse educators, nurse informaticists, Nurse Managers, leaders of professional nursing organizations at state and federal levels and nurses who have quit or retired in the last one decade. These questionnaires will focus on job satisfactions views, leaderships nurturing, motivation within the workforce and enrollment. It will also focus on views on reasons for quitting at early stages of the career from former nurses (Oliver, 2010).
Some selected participants will be subjected to interviews to gain a hands-on experience of the trends in nursing and the current policies designed to improve retention and minimize turnover rates (Ma, 2000). The interviews will focus more on nurse leaders and leaders of professional nursing organizations. These will also be relied upon in understanding the views of the nurses who have quit since the interview provides a platform where they can air their views in a concise manner.
Survey of organizational data
One of the critical aspects of the evaluation process is to combine quantitative and qualitative data to draw appropriate conclusions. A realistic approach to this process will be to make a detailed mathematic analysis of the trends in nursing colleges focusing on enrollment and completion rates in the last decade. Similarly, the rates of licensing, certification and registration of nurses for the last one decade will be analyzed to guide a clear picture of the trends. Finally, this data will be caused against the comparative views of the nurses, nurse leaders and other stakeholders who will be considered worthy participants of the evaluation process.
The relevant variables for this study will include job satisfaction and motivation. These will be monitored by applying ‘direct indicators’ or ‘other-work indicators’ and the Facet Satisfaction Scale (Oliver, 2010). The focus will be on pay hours of work, future prospects (job security and promotion); difficulty of the job, job content (prestige, interest and independence) and interpersonal relationships. Quantitatively, the variables to be assessed include the turnover rates in the last one decade and the comparative rates every year after the full implementation of the proposed solution. Enrollment rates ion colleges and the completion rates will be monitored to determine whether the proposed policies have had any significant impacts on the rates and the trends (Saunders, Evans & Joshi, 2005). The evaluation of these trends will be conducted every one year upon full implementation of the proposed changes.
– Dissemination Plan
Dissemination of data is an essential element of any project since it keeps all the stakeholders of the project updated and informed on the progress of the project. It will be a waste of resources time if the benefits of the project are not communicated to the parties affected by the project. Thus, it is of great significant that the government, colleges that offer nursing courses, nurses, hospitals administration and the general public comes aware of the devastating effects of the nursing shortage. Therefore, it’s paramount to find a medium that will make sure the information reach the end users and the general nursing community without distortion of any part of the data (Parekh et al., 2010)
The best strategy to disseminate the findings of the project is through a journal both in hard copies (publications) and softcopies (emails, website). These venues will make sure all the stakeholders get the information in the original form without any fabrications. The essence of this journal strategy is to make an everlasting impact that will last for long for years. In addition, the distribution of the information would be easy, and all the parties will get the information at their convenient time. Since the internet is widely used, the audience reached by the website will be bigger at a low cost. Thus, all the stakeholders can take their time to read the journal at the comfort of their workstation through the computer or the publications. This will give all the stakeholders chance to evaluate the findings of the project and give their recommendations in various discussion platforms. Furthermore, the nursing community in general can have access to information since it would be on the internet and various collections of nursing publications. Thus, when the nurses search on the internet about the nursing shortage they can come across the journal and get the information. Moreover, the publication of the research can be used as an additional reference for other researchers in the future (Mashiach, 2011).
– Review of Literature
Tillot et al. (2013) identifies that nursing shortage is a result of an aging workforce, aging population, job dissatisfaction, shortage within the nursing faculty and the lack of an engaging and collaborative environment is care settings. Tillot et al. (2013) utilized a systematic review of past literature aimed at assessing the factors that deny the workers an opportunity to engage their colleagues constructively in practice. The study notes that the management should focus on developing an environment where communication and staff collaboration and engagement is considered a primary element of the organizational culture. The study is highly applicable in nursing practice since it identifies the major issues that have held back nurses or at other times motivated them to engage with colleagues in making decisions pertaining care. This information can then be utilized to develop policies that can significantly help retain nurses in the workforce.
Duffield et al. (2011) examine the impact of nurse managers and their relationship with the other staff in the delivery of quality and timely care. The study used a secondary analysis if 94 randomly selected wards from a total of 21 public hospitals. The data was collected for a period of two years upon which this information was subjected to a logical and mathematical analysis using SPSS version 16 software. All nurses (n=2488 with 80% turnover rate) within the selected wards were presented with a survey that they were required to complete. The survey included a 49-item Nursing Work Index-Revised [NWI-R] which also included other job satisfaction measures such as satisfaction with nursing as well as intention to quit the career. The subscales of the survey were then calculated with leadership that formed the domain of interest having a total of 12 times. The subdivision of wards was based on those that reported positive or negative leadership. The results indicated that the positivity or negativity of the ward was solely based on the nurse manager leadership skills. A good leader was described as visible, consultative, can work with flexible work schedules and was able to recognize and praise the role played by others. Combining leadership with practice has been proved to be a key aspect of encouraging and keeping the workforce motivated. The study advocates for the open management systems in nursing that essentially form the core concept nurturing and encouraging nurses in practice.
Wieck et al. (2010) is a literature review based on the analysis of online survey of staff from 22 hospital settings in which job satisfaction and perceptions of safety using the Nurse Manager Desired Traits survey/tool and the Nursing Work Index-Revised tool. The results indicated that satisfaction levels were high with the nurse/physician relationship abut lower for the nurse control of practice. On the other hand, younger nurses were said to have less satisfaction in practice as compared to older nurses beyond the age of 40 years. Wieck et al. (2010) helps in identifying nurturing as a critical aspect of retaining and encouraging the young nurses. On the other hand, the need for a stable staff, revamped incentives for motivation, nurses’ safety and empowerment of the nurse councils are identified as playing a significant role in retention and keeping the staff motivated. The recommendations can be helpful in drawing up policies that can ultimately help in ensuring a better environment that serves the interest of the nurses to the fullest.
In a similar study to Wieck et al. (2010), the study by Twigg & McCullough (2014) employed a systematic review of 41 articles all relating to nurse retention. Thirty-nine of the sources revealed that Nurse Managers play a key role in adopting strategies that can ably create a positive working environment for the nurses. The recommendation provided here can be adopted to develop policies at organizational level that can aid in nurturing skill of the young nurses and motivating them to remain in the service.
Renter et al. (2014) identifies the work environment and nurse satisfaction as a key to improving the nurse retention rates. Renter et al. (2014) is a literature review of related sources collected from renowned medical and clinical databases. The study was based on a PICO question “How does nurse retention in acute-care hospitals with Magnet designation compare to nurse retention in non-Magnet hospitals?” The results indicated that Magnet designation provides a positive environment as compared to non-magnet acute care settings. Magnet designed organization have programs that facilitate career development for the nurses, funding continuing education for their workforce and promotion of employee education. Renter et al. (2014) establish that as long the best solution is to make all possible costs to retain current workforce since the costs of hiring a new workforce highly overwhelm the costs of retaining. On the other hand, loss of current workforce is accompanied by loss of experience and expertise coupled with an unstable organizational culture.
Dr. Wang in his many years in the health care professionals has observed that many nurses and doctors are becoming specialized in their area of expertise such as urology, hematology, and pulmonary disease among others. Although this meets the doctors’ expectations of efficiency, professionalism and quality care, it’s a divergent from the core function of a nurse which is providing care to all the patients irrespective of the disease or illness the patient is suffering from. Additionally, due to poor numeration packages, nurses have resulted to take administration position is various healthcare facilities to gain more allowances. Thus, due to these scenarios many health facilities are facing a shortage of nurses. Therefore, although specialization is an excellent idea move in the nursing professional, Dr. Wang proposes for review of policies which govern the nursing professional so that the they can make sure nurses are paid according to their experience and the kind of specialization they are engage in. Furthermore, the hospital administration should be able to design work schedule that accommodate nurses social life. As such, nurses should be given ample time to be with their loved ones at home not confined to the hospital all their life. Additionally the hospital administration should work out mechanism and working ethics which will make sure the nurses and doctors work in harmony. In the case of a conflict there should be guidelines on how to solve the disputes so as the patient is given the best treatment from professionals.
Dunn (2012) looks at the positive side of nursing professional that keeps nurses in the professional despite wide negativity about nurses as has been portrayed by previous research. Moreover, it also looks at the impact nurses have on the patient as they administer health care to the patient. On the hand, previous research have shown nurse leave the professional due to job dissatisfaction, getting opportunities elsewhere, retirement, fatigue and psychological stress. The research employed Schoenhofer and Boyking nursing theory as the framework for this research. Thus, this theory asserts that nurses are supposed to have an attribute of a caring and nurturing relationship. These are the core values which should drive nurses. Hence, nurse should be looking forward to alleviating the suffering of the patient by forming a good relation with the patient. The research found out that the nurses do their job simply because they believe it is the right thing to do. Additionally some see it as a way of giving back to the society since it was ethically correct.


Good Term Paper About Nursing: Nursing Philosophy Scholarly Paper

Good Term Paper About Nursing: Nursing Philosophy Scholarly Paper


1970-1980’s (Newman, Parse, Watson, Rogers) iv. Development of the metaparadigm per Fawcett
v. Development of paradigms
1. Simultaneity and Totality
2. Particulate-Deterministic, Interactive -Integrative, Unitary Transformative
III. Discuss knowledge development in nursing (10 points)
a. Carper’s Ways of Knowing
b. Emancipatory Knowing
c. Ways of unknowing
d. Role of research
e. Role of the socio political environment
IV. Application/Synthesis for Advanced Practice (10 points)

Describe how the new advanced knowledge, in the course to date has informed and influenced your own perspective on nursing:
i. Philosophic
a. What philosophy is most congruent with your own personal philosophy and why?
ii. Paradigm of Nursing
a. Discuss the congruence between your nursing philosophy and your nursing paradigm
b. Describe which ways of knowing are most integral and important to your theory, philosophy and paradigm of practice
c. Identify research questions you might ask based on your philosophy and paradigm of nursing. Explain why you might be interested in this discovery.
V. Summary (5 points)

This research embraces a dissuasion on nursing philosophy. Areas of interest pertained to its foundation; emergence into theory and science; positivism /empiricism; historicism hermeneutics/Interpretative and critical Social Theory and feminism were discussed fully. Comparative world views were exposed concerning these issues and conclusion tendered in relation to results observed.

Nursing Philosophy has its firm foundation in the work of Florence Nightingale (1820 -1910), who is considered the lady with the Lamp or in more precise terms the Lady with the Light. The following exposition offers a brief historical background to nursing philosophy and some salient developments of the disciple into a science through theoretical adaptations.
– Philosophic Foundation

The relationship between Philosophy, Science and Theory
Manuel Velasquez (2014) from Santa Clara University advances that philosophy is an investigation into problems. Specifically, these problems are related to articulation of language, interpretation of values, meaning of reality; purpose of human existence; acquisition and interpretation of knowledge; understanding reasoning and how the human mind functions (Velasquez, 2014). The difference between philosophy and other disciplines is that in studying philosophy the emphasis is on its critical approach towards interpreting/understanding the given phenomenon. Also, philosophy differs in the way logical thinking is applied in exploring events, which concern philosophers. Importantly, philosophy is not considered a science and it has no theoretical basis (Velasquez, 2014).
Science emerged from the Latin language and is interpreted to mean knowledge. As an investigative process science is responsible for organizing knowledge. Essentially, science takes one aspect of knowledge and through scientific investigation builds on that specific segment in creating more knowledge. Modern science is firmly concerned with pursuance of knowledge. This is acheived through scientific methods of research involving creation of hypothesis testing techniques. These techniques involve the use of variable and scientists adopting a relevant methodology to investigate the knowledge being tested (Grant, 2007).
Arguments have been that philosophy cannot be considered science because there is no evidence to prove the knowledge obtain as valid. Therefore, scientists criticize philosophy because philosophers base their assumptions on logic whereas scientists have tested the knowledge they advance using scientific tools including data analysis techniques. In this regard scientists contend that philosophy consist merely assumptions, which have not been proven. However, over the ages scientists have taken the knowledge philosophers assumed and tested their thinking though modern scientific methods. As such, philosophers respond with the notion that science is philosophy proven. In reality science has no knowledge of its own (Grant, 2007).
Theory is defined as contemplative abstract thinking, similar to philosophy, but while philosophy uses thinking to produce knowledge theory attempts to explain how knowledge works. In relation to science theories are tested when scientific methodologies are adapted to validate knowledge. Consequently, the relationship between/among philosophy, science and knowledge is knowledge acquisition, testing and explanations of how knowledge is utilized in the real world (Grant, 2007).
11. Major philosophies that have shaped nursing
– Positivism /empiricism

For example, positivism assumes that knowledge is concrete and any phenomenon can be measured. Therefore, clinical data, which is used to verify diagnoses are measures applicable to philosophies that have shaped nursing practice. Evidence based practice is also another element of positivism and empiricism emerging from philosophy into science through theory formation (Landero, 2014)
Positivism emphasizes knowledge emerging from the observable, whereas empiricism focuses on clarifying knowledge through application of scientific methods. While positivism single hamdely have has moved nursing science from philosophy into a scientific discipline, positivism and empiricism together have paved the way for this triumphant entry. Essentially, these development are aligned to Nightingale’s nursing philosophy pertaining to her trascendent publication Notes on Nursing. These notes reflected the abstract thinking concerning environment hygienist. Currently, they are conceptualized as principles of cleanness, space, light, and air. In the absence of theory and scientific testing of abstract thinking, Nightingale recorded the interventions she observed, diminishing infections and death in her peculiar setting. At the time it was a nursing room at Crimea, containing injured soldiers (Landero, 2014).
– Historicism
Historicism embraces multiple philosophical perspectives regarding the development of nursing into a science. One such view relates to the belief that traditionally, for nature to be clearly understood , it must be taken within a context of time and place simultaneously. This philosophy is closely associated with relativism in other disciplines. As such, nursing is linked to historical ideologies through development of theoretical perspectives, by assessing the use of variables. This assumption coincides with the culture paradigm of the individual patient (Velasquez, 2014).
– Hermeneutics/Interpretative
The initial use of hermeneutics/interpretative pertained to deciphering of scripture and its meaning. Hence, the applications are strongly related to the abstract thinking contained in philosophical expositions. The applications of hermeneutics/interpretative paradigms to nursing practice involves interpreting texts or evidence, since in the beginning there were no theories/ hypotheses to prove or dispute knowledge. Interpretations focused on producing more knowledge as well as clarifying what already existed being practiced in nursing science (Velasquez, 2014).
– Critical Social Theory and feminism
An unspoken philosophy, which pervaded nursing practice for centuries pertained to the feminists ideology that nursing was only executed by women since Florence nightingale is a woman. In those days women were not even supposed to work, much more enter a professional practice. However, it can be said that she was the first feminists who advocated for women in the work force as nurses training them to practice the philosophy she espoused (Green, 2012).
As such, critical social theory in relation to feminism and nursing practice, argues for addressing patients from a perspective of gender. Ancient societies marginalized women as being inferior to men. Male chauvinism ruled the world. While there are still elements within modern professional culture, social theory has helped to eradicate many misconceptions of women in the society. Social theory applied empirical evidence in proving that there are no significant social differences regarding the capabilities of men and women. Discrepancies were socially constructed (Green, 2012).
c. Compare and Contrast the worldviews that inform nursing science
i. Reaction
Michele Sloma (2014) commented on the ‘Impact of Nursing Models in a Professional Environment: Linking Spiritual End-of-Life Care to Nursing Theory.’ This nursing theorist was reacting to the world’s perspective of hospice intervention (care for the dying), which is a relatively modern feature in nursing science. Originally, nursing was approached from the paradigm of enhancing quality of life. The prevailing world view has extended the arm of nursing towards enhancing the quality of death, which is a paradox to philosophies espoused by early thinkers such as Florence Nightingale (Sloma, 2014)
Sloma (2014) argued that spiritual facilitation is important to end of life. This is the technique whereby a nurse offers spiritual support in resolution of end-of-life (EOL) issues. Nursing conceptual models are applied to the process. These models promote positive client/ family interactions during the end life stages, which are often festered with grief, resentment and remorse. Nurses are trained to adopt strategies that help the dying person cope with death itself while family members are comforted as they experience the imminent lost. Critics of nursing philosophy argue that nurses are forced to play the role of religious scientists when they realty ought to be caring for the body Sloma (2014) advanced (Sloma, 2014).
However, she further contends that with regards to nursing science, the proposed spiritual facilitation approach towards end of life care; the interventions executed, nursing education and conceptual models applied are all consistent with evolution in the science as it pertains to holistic care. Essentially, it is taking into Account of physical, social and spiritual elements of the human being. They are intricately related to the nursing process. The theorists was profound in pronouncing her claim for end of life intervention in nursing science (Sloma, 2014).
While numerous controversies are still heated among nursing professional regarding end of life care requirements, contradicting traditional nursing philosophies Sloma (2014) confirmed that research validates the necessity for acquisition of basic knowledge regarding nurses’ capacity of providing effective spiritual intervention during end-of-life care. Many issues surface at this stage of life. If the nurse is to fulfil his/her unique role of caring for an individual as a total unit according to Maslow’s hierarchy of basic human needs, this aspect of care must be addressed in nursing practice (Sloma, 2014).
ii. Reciprocal interaction
This relates to a nursing tradition, which has evolved into the world view perception of humans as holistic beings, while still being interpreted as entities with distinct separate parts. This perceptive was adapted from the social sciences where society is viewed as a whole with separate institutions. Also, humans interact with their environment and design it to meet their individual goals facilitating existence and function as a social, spiritual and physical being. World view reactionists have not yet grasped the holistic concept. Many health promotion programs have been executed based on this model (Pender, 2014).
iii. Simultaneous action
Simultaneous action as a world view denotes theoretical perspectives being used together in investigating knowledge. Some theorists call it a simultaneous concept analysis. In this approach a process model adapting four concepts are applied. Jean Watson’s theory of caring is considered a simultaneous action, since the nurse utilized dual care paradigms together in applying the nursing process. The model forges a nursing segment along with an individual care responsibility. Again the world view of holistic intervention is perpetuated within the science (Pender, 2014).
d. Description of the development of nursing philosophy
i. Early years-pre 1950’s
History communicates to the world that before Florence Nightingale there was no nursing philosophy. However, once philosophers existed abstract thinking pertaining to care of persons who were ill was always articulated. Simultaneously as the 17th and 18th centuries were considered the age of reasoning, similarly nursing philosophy could have embraced similar reasoning. Major philosophical developments included, nursing education emerging in Europe simultaneously with Florence Nightingale’s moving to Alexandria, Egypt to complete training as a nurse. The philosophy pertained to training for effective dispensation of care. This is evidence that philosophical thinking in Europe was way behind that of Egypt (Pender, 2014).
ii. Entry into academia and the received view (empiricism/positivism)
Conscious attempts at identifying nursing with the natural sciences forged entry of the practice into the scientific mode of functioning. Further, nursing was recognized as a practical human activity while it could not be fully verified as a natural science. However, the practice initiated applications of behavioral scientific techniques, which are definitely scientific in their modalities. Ultimately, nursing was considered an applied science. The scientific application encompassed theory formation and testing of knowledge through empirical evidence. These inflections provided nursing with credential of a scientific practice (Pender, 2014).
iii. Evidence of divergent thinking in nursing theoretical writing in the late


Health, Education, Medicine, Human Resource Management, Nursing, Community, Study, Information

Health, Education, Medicine, Human Resource Management, Nursing, Community, Study, Information

The survey targets healthcare workers in hospitals across the nation. They will voluntarily submit to the survey in order to expose their most recent knowledge concerning the nursing shortage. They have been allowed to volunteer at chance as no selected times were chosen for the survey. The respondents targeted could be from any category of the general healthcare community and as noted above will share one more characteristics that are shared and is relative to the nursing community and related by the claim of knowledge concerning the nursing community.
In the spirit of the quantitative simple designed research method, the investigation of the knowledge level about the nursing shortage should bear similar characteristics or traits. This helps to meet the characteristics of the simple survey design and the quantitative method. The simple survey will also attempt to provide some rationales as to how the Nursing Shortage crisis can be altered by linking and charting the perceptions of the general healthcare populations. It will also show that the closer that the respondents are to the nursing community executive hierarchy, the more their perceptions will take shape in the graphical charting.
Their results should be demonstrative and near the peak of the curve and above the mean, mode or the median in the statistical analysis portion of the study. Because the survey is more quantitative than qualitative, the results will define clear borders of the patterns. Whereas; the qualitative design approach will bear results which are far less clear and bear very little predictability.
The single group selected in the study will also have an interest in the results of the study. This presents the beginnings of the target audience and the population. Additional beneficiaries of the survey may include many populations across the country and who have discovered that the deficits in the nursing community have somehow made their way to their locations as well. This is where the study can educate and begin the dialogue needed that enough has not been done. In doing so, the study will increase its’ jurisdiction in relation to the time after the publication date.
In the essence of the required characteristics of the simple survey, the participants may be students, university admissions or office staff and nursing school administrators. Other stakeholders include collaborating hospital staff, hospital administration and practicing nurses. Others who are crucial to the study are practicing doctors and professors involved in teaching of nursing courses. Respondents will be adults, but also may include males or females within the community or some way may be involved directly in nursing discipline. Results could also be used to investigate further research in this area.

The paper has adopted Quantitative Design methodology which has an embedded simple descriptive survey design that focuses on the nursing community and those who have had experiences with the education of the profession. In the survey, we will focus on a population of participants that will be linked by simple and random characteristics. It is important to include any and all categories of participants so that inclusions of the results are pertinent in as many ways as possible. In doing so, the results can be categorized in ways that provide similar information for those that contribute to information which may be used to begin how communities can help to offset the crisis of the nursing shortage.
Furthermore, a critical evaluation of secondary literature on nursing shortage is in need to be stimulated. Some of which have been identified by way of official professional reports, peer reviewed journals, books and bibliographic databases. Crucial concepts include the acute and growing nursing shortage, nursing migration, and international nursing. An in-depth interview primary data collection method shall be used to gather information from key respondents as clinical leaders and stakeholders.

Data Collection Methods
The research instruments are very important parts of data collection and have many crucial components. In this case, a survey tool has been designed, that is an instrument that will help to identify the knowledge base about a well-published problem governing the nursing shortage. A selection criterion is embedded in the survey to differentiate and select a target population that can help to expose how the nursing shortage has affected communities across the nation. Inclusive in the survey are questions that will help to survey and identify how the shortage has affected populations as well as identifying those communities that have already selected and taken actions to aid their communities in resolving the shortage.
The survey is geared to those that most closely work near or within the survey and attempts to allow nursing students input into the data. The researcher used the assistance and information of The Joint Commission website in order to begin the selection process for the participant or target hospitals and healthcare professionals. It also intends to gain participation from hospitals that are in the process of seeking accreditation by allowing hospitals that are in the application phase of certification with The Joint Commission to participate as well. The rationale behind this allowance knows that practitioners that are seeking either will be familiar or have seen processes to stall the crisis of the shortage.
After identifying hospitals across the nation and formulation of the plan to select the hospitals and clinics, the data collection process continued by contacting the identified hospitals in order to attempt to find a point person for as many facilities as possible. This technique was important in order to gain maximum numbers of practitioners for the sample to minimize deviations induced by the researcher and also knowing that peer influence of those affected were needed to be well represented and to reach the number of participants sought.
This agenda was only used when phone calls and emails did not work. Additionally, non-respondents and those communities that understand implications of the nursing crisis are often more apt to realize the importance of the research when they are approached from a peer or colleague.
After soliciting and collecting information from the brief survey, the target audience and participants were sent a link from the survey tool Survey Monkey. This tool was selected because of its ability to allow creations that were attractive and easy for most participants to use. It also allows other important features of data collection such as ease of use and ease of accessibility. The link that was sent to the participants or target audience was embedded in the contact emails for the audience selected.
Data collection employment is a crucial part of the process of quantitative research. The simple survey and methods of data collection were crucial in providing the vital information solicited and if done correctly would allow the researcher to add to the many manuals or manuscripts concerning the nursing shortage. It also allowed other variations of knowledge from different communities to become a part of the knowledge base of how important the eradication of the nursing shortage is and how communities are attempting to resolve the crisis.
The research sought from the simple survey was solicited in order to get a sample population that well represents the impressions, attitudes, perceptions and affect that the nursing shortage places on communities and the practitioners of nursing and its support.
One hundred participants were selected in order to provide data about a group of healthcare personnel that are affected daily by the nursing shortage. The research will solicit information about the group and its characteristics and demographic understanding about the nursing shortage. We will collect the data by brief surveys, definitive surveys and collect the data by talking directly to hospital staff that allows the researcher to weed through appropriate participants.
The purpose of the survey was to learn more about how different practitioners and hospitals are handling the crisis. Descriptions and characteristics of the practitioners should at this point from the survey. Suggestions about how communities and respondents are utilizing the information in solving their dilemmas, and conducting nursing education should evolve from the information returned.

Data Collection Instrument
The research survey used to collect quantitative data in this study was an on-line mixed-methods simple survey. Gay, Mills, & Airasian (2008), suggest that the survey “should be attractive, brief and easy to respond to,” therefore, the researcher constructed a brief questionnaire which allows the research to contribute information from a variety of personnel surrounding nursing, but also the research will also allow contributions to also from those that are indirectly influenced by the crisis. This feature should help to make sure that this quantitative descriptive study meets it goals by identifying characteristics of these particular group of people who share common attributes that are descriptive and explanatory. Another feature of the survey intends to examine characteristics of the respondents by examining the extent of involvement with the community of nursing. This helps to add to the knowledge base from different levels surrounding nursing practitioners and their support personnel. Five levels of involvement were embedded in the survey in order to group and characterize the data from the selected respondents and to better examine the awareness level of each of the five groups and the impact of the crisis of each level.
The survey will contribute information from the highest level around the nursing hierarchy to the lowest level of involvement by inclusion of nursing students and personnel up to the executive level of nursing support and administration, This was done by asking specific structured questions which only allowed the respondents to select from the five levels of the survey. An additional protection embedded is a category of questions has in its scale a category of none that is double-blind eradicator and respondents who made the initial cut will be eradicated by this embedded answer. This question by itself offers extra protection to limit responses only from those that worked or had knowledge of the impact of the nursing shortage in their community and workplace. .
Lastly, the instrument contains rating scales. The data from the scales will help to isolate and develop conclusions from the variables offered. During the analysis portion of the data interpretation, it will help to shape the information and offer characteristics or mounds of data about the perception of the nursing shortage from the selected respondents. The instrument will also help to shape the data from the participants that either add to or expand upon the publications already captured concerning the nursing shortage in both subjective and objective terms. It is also the data that is used form the rating scales that will allow the researcher to carefully select his study sample and ensure that only those that are intended to be included are included.

Identifying the Data Collected
The data collected will help to form the characteristics from healthcare workers governing the nursing shortage crisis. Raw data from the population included in the survey will expand to the database of the collected publications but will also suggest further conclusions. The conclusions from the data collected may also suggest areas that have begun to remediate their concerns governing the shortage.
Additionally, peaks, modes, medians, and means may be formed from the data that can point to conclusions about the status in some of the nation’s communities that are indirectly or directly involved in nursing care. The researcher used raw data collected through the survey to calculate and form many features of the data. Characteristics and descriptors such as frequency, percentages, mean, mode and medians are just a few of the type of statistics that the data will reveal.
The data collected will have a cut-off date of July 15, 2013 and the data collection phase of research will be done. This was done in order to begin the next portion of the research that is data analysis. At the conclusion of the data collection phase, data analysis will point out conclusions and patterns of awareness at this point from the sample that made the cut off. Triangulations, peaks, and other patterns of statistical similarities will be revealed and groups that are aware in different communities will show similar trends of those that are doing similar interventions.
It is this phase that the researcher must prove and look for analogies which implicate trends, questions, weaknesses and strengths. Conclusions from the trends and other patterns generated by the data; can and will help to draw conclusions about the data and its respondents’ awareness and intervention levels governing the nursing shortage.

Research Procedure
The procedure for the study began with selection of the topic of interest or inquiry that is personal in some way to the researcher. The literature was selected during the review phase. From here, goals and questions were developed. Questions and Hypothesis were parts of the initial portion of the research and helped to conclude the proposal phase. Permissions and authorizations were obtained from both the Institutional Review Board, (IRB) and participant communities. A community and respondent selection vehicle was chosen. The Joint Commission was selected as the vehicle for identification of the respondent database.
Limitations to avoid researcher flaws were well rehearsed and planned to avoid potential researcher evoked bias. This control helped in selecting lists or respondent communities around the United States provided by a professional organization. When the researcher called each hospital and if it was determined that they utilized nurses (only these hospitals will be surveyed-others excluded). I then identified the clinical partner who meets the criteria as outlined above. In the middle of the research, both the brief and the online were electronically mailed.
The survey tool selected was well known for its efficiency. The researcher provided and developed rapport with the clinical partners by providing a follow-up protocol, consisting of a follow-up email or occasional phone call to the clinic managers after one week, to help facilitate participation. This process continued until the researcher received answers from at least 100 respondents. This part of the analysis calculated some clustered data manually, in accordance with study needs.
The researcher then examined the analyzed data looking for answer to the research questions, trends, strengths and weaknesses, drawing conclusions and comparing the results of this study with the recommendations set forth by relevant professional organizations. The researcher then used the results to make objective observations, recommend appropriate nursing education and competency programs, and suggest areas in need of further clinical study.

Data Analysis
The data analysis technique adapted in this research project emerges from a quantitative research design. This type of design is applied in scientific models where theories are generated and hypotheses must be tested. Instruments must be developed as was done previously in the early sections of this proposal. The specific instrument is a questionnaire with items. There must also be a method of measurement. In this case it is application of ANOVA. Some quantitative models encompass experimental control and manipulation of variables. The variables contained in this research are amplified in 19 research questions tendered to be answered (Belle, Gerald, 2008)
However, there will be no experimental control in this study since it is a survey, but collection will embrace retrieval of empirical data. Eventually, a data processing and analysis model will be adapted consistent with a quantitative design.

Techniques for analyzing data
(ANOVA) will be employed as the data analysis technique model. Usually, ANOVA is used in the analysis of comparative experiments especially, when the researcher predicts different outcomes in the hypothesis. However, the technique would be applied here to analyze data retrieved from a survey. Also, ‘the statistical significance of an experiment is determined by a ratio of two variances. This ratio is independent of several possible alterations to the experimental observations: Adding a constant to all observations does not alter significance. Multiplying all observations by a constant does not alter significance. So ANOVA statistical significance results are independent of constant bias and scaling errors as well as the units used in expressing observations’ (Boanas & and Renton, 2000).
The difference in application of ANOVA to this research is applying its logic whereby calculations can be demonstrated as computing a number of means and variances, by dividing two variances and comparing the ratio to a handbook value in determining statistical significance. The variances will emerge from questionnaire responses after data analysis software is applied to facilitate classification, differentiation and assembling of data (Boanas & and Renton, 2000).
Software, which is recommended for analyzing questionnaire responses in this project, is Statistical Product and Service Solutions (SPSS).This software is reliable and very popular among quantitative researchers. Even though, it is extremely powerful the software is very easy to manipulate. Programs are files designed with a help menu to guide students into coding questionnaire responses in preparation for calculation of means, standard deviation and variances, chi-square; t-tests and a variety of other statistical applications including ANOVA. Designing of graphs as well as data charting is facilitated on this software program too (Boanas & and Renton, 2000).

Rationale for Analysis chosen
The objective of this research paper is to elucidate the causes of the nursing shortage in the healthcare sector. The data will be organized into three different platforms. Questionnaires and interviews will be used in seeking responses from participants. For these reasons, the chosen data analysis procedure (ANOVA) will be essential in showcasing the level of differences in the variables under study.
After application of the SPSS software to the initial data analysis process ANOVA adaptations will be applied because analysis of variance occurring in the hypothesis and 19 research questions must be clarified. These clarifications can be achieved only through ANOVA in this specific case when the research seeks to describe as phenomenon such as nursing shortage among a population of nurses.
An important advantage of ANOVA is its computational ability in software programs such as SPSS. Essentially, its structural additive model facilitates solution of additive coefficients through simple algebra rather than by matrix calculations. Twenty-first century mechanical calculators welcome this simplicity. Also, statistical significance determination requires access to F function tables, which are all found in software programs (Boanas & and Renton, 2000).

Interpretation of Analysis Results
The analysis results will be interpreted though graphically display and explanation of descriptive statistics. The hypothesis will be tested for its significance. Depending on the statistical results it will be proven valid or invalid. This can only be interpreted based on the findings of ANOVA calculations. Research questions will also be tendered for variance level identifications. Variances occurring in each question will be compared for an overall interpretation of results based on the statistical test results. These results will, predict the causes of nursing shortages as it pertains to responses retrieved from this survey.
The most critical aspect will be to showcase the causes of nursing shortage from the most to the least influential. This will be

Two key resources:
– Olson, K. (2001). Nursing Shortages: A Growing Concern. Almanac of Policy Issues, 11. Almanac of Policy Issues.
– Sobon-Sensor, C. (2012). Nursing Shortage. STTI Home Page. Version 12. The Honor Society of Nursing.

The Scope of the Study
The student population pursuing or interested in nursing course will be targeted touching on relevant causes of the nursing shortage that should be addressed. This will include the relevance of the nursing training curriculum, methodologies that the trainers use in training the nurses, retention efforts for the registered nurses, staffing models that hospitals and employment authority’s use, and increasing the revenue that governments allocate to the relevant ministries associated with nursing. The survey shall be conducted within the university environment.

Research has indicated that the major causes of the nursing shortages accrue mostly from human errors in various decision-making aspects. The decisions that people make concerning the field of nursing lead to shortfalls of various degrees in the field. Here are some of the recommendations that will help different authorities and relevant stakeholders in determining on how to deal with the issue.
First, it is imperative to increase the quality of reimbursement in the health division in order to promote the worth of nurses. This would lure individuals to train as professional nurses, and it will make the field as lucrative as other fields of career (Cohen & Sherrod, 2003).
Secondly, it is necessary to improve and increase recruitment of nurses. This will help to subsidize the high ratio of nurse to patient. Recruitment of nurses will help to pull down the rates of shortages. Retention is also an aspect that should be considered at all costs. There should be strategies that will ensure that registered nurses do not leave the profession for other lucrative professions. Various strategies can help in achieving this point, like remuneration, and reviewing the nursing working conditions, among others.
Further, there are radical reforms that need to be evaluated within the next few years in order to improve the situation in the nursing field. The reforms regard intervention in the policies regarding healthcare provision. Some of the reforms are macroeconomic and healthcare sector financing, positive practice environment, and recruitment and retention of healthcare workers and nurses (Feldman, 2003). The focus on recruitment and retention strategies may concentrate on retaining nurses who are likely to retire at an average age of 44.5 years by 2010. This will ameliorate the projected shortage about 260,000 nurses by 2025 (Buerhaus, Auerbach & Staiger, 2009). In most cases, effort to retain nurses will ease on cost of turnover and increase better and quality.
All countries around the world have to strive to attain self-sufficiency in terms of the healthcare workforce without creating adverse effects in other countries. For instance, over the past few years, Philippine has been producing many nurses, a situation that has led to many of them migrating to the United States of America. Self-sufficiency regards to the ability of a country, or a state, to supply the number of required healthcare providers at a given time, and the ability to retain and sustain the providers conveniently (Sobon-Sensor, 2012). Many countries have failed to retain such a status, and have ended up on either side of importing or exporting nurses.
Federal legislation has provided funding to all manner of nursing profession. The U.S congress in 2009 passed Nurse Education Expansion and Development act (NEED). At policy level, the American Association of Colleges has taken upon itself to address the root cause of nursing shortage by giving college resources to impart more skills to new nurses (AACC, 2009). According to the Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals survey, potential solutions to the nursing problem lay with increased staffing (43%); less administrative roles performed by nurses (34%); high wages (27%); more involvement and engagement in decision making (14%); more flexibility (8%); limits of floating (8%) and better hours schedule; other job progression issues were refresher courses (56%); more staff support (55%); listening bodies like unions, performance based salary and work place childcare (44%) (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001). The inter-departmental health council offers a suggestion that degree holders should provide nursing care in complicated clinical situations. They argue that there should be a team of captains performing think tank functions for planning and directing or giving personal or group care to individuals.
Higher learning institutions like colleges and universities should reduce age and nursing training college period to rejuvenate nursing recruitment. This will allow a reservoir of potential nurses interested in simple care of the sick to perform nursing practice. The government should provide enough subsidies for training of nurses. Expand training institutions to allow other institutions like technical institutes, junior and community colleges. Another option would be making training in nursing mandatory. The nursing profession continues to face an ever-growing challenge in the global village across the world. While the challenges are acute in the U.S, the same scenario is replicated in Europe and developing countries (Nursing, 2010).
Andrist, Patrice and Wolf (2006) jointly indicate that nursing shortages vary depending on each country’s characteristics of its care needs. However, the shortage is ultimately universal and same in all nations of the world. This is because as one can see from the above discussion, the causes and possible interventions are identical. It is possible for the United Nations to intervene and pass professional guidelines that will influence the field hence bring in changes that will ensure resuscitation of the nursing profession. There is the need for incentives in the field in order to entice the young generations to get into the field. This will ensure the security of the work force in the future of the nursing field. Each country of the world understands the consequences of understaffed nursing field, and should stress on maintaining workers and strife to retain those already in the field.

How the Key Words were used
In order to get the best results, the key words were modified in various ways. For instance, to understand the nursing field, the tern nursing had to be keyed as the search tool as Nursing in America. This provided the overall situation in the nursing industry. Secondly, international nursing provided the overall comparison of nursing worldwide. Nursing training and curriculum provided the review in the nursing syllabus and the shortfalls that face the process and setting. Hospital staffing was used to provide the criteria and situational analysis of hospitals in America. Professional alternatives were used to review reasons why registered nurses prefer getting to other fields despite being qualified as nurses

Health, Education, Nursing, Students, Profession, Study, Information, Enrollment

Nursing Shortage: Research Proposal Thesis
Type of paper: Thesis

Topic: Health, Education, Nursing, Students, Profession, Study, Information, Enrollment

– 1. Topic – Nursing Shortage
This paper begins by discussing the background of the problem by capturing global nursing trends and the magnitude of nursing shortage in the U.S and the subsequent effect on communities. It attempts to continue the exploration of policy directives by the government, educational institutions and practitioners. It discusses the rationale of the study, its purpose and research objectives, which seek to examine the effect of low enrollment into nursing course in the U.S. Additionally, the paper examines the effect of inadequate teaching staff on nursing courses at the university and seeks to identify the causes and extent of low enrollment or retention in nursing. The research narrows to those affected by the shortage and explores enrollment apathy with respect to the nursing shortage. This paper has justified the research design and methods, roles of the researcher and potential biases, the target population and scope of the study. The paper finalizes by giving recommendations and conclusions.
Historical background to nursing problem
Nursing shortage is a global crisis that all nations are trying to grapple with. Patients suffer because of nursing shortage in the healthcare sector (Krasner, 1938). According to the Center for Nursing Advocacy, causal factors such as poor working conditions, inadequate resources for nursing, the ever-aging nursing workforce, expanded career opportunities for women who traditionally were in the nursing profession, and the increasing complexity of healthcare technology have been advancing the acuteness (The Center for Nursing Advocacy, 2007). Lintern indicates that not much is known concerning the increasing shrinkage in the professional nursing workforce worldwide. The growing healthcare needs and the diminishing number of nursing care providers pose a serious challenge to nations worldwide (Lintern, 2012).
The U.S suffers acute shortage of nurses, which has become a critical concern for the healthcare sector. The cornerstone to the problem is the shortage of skilled nurses per individual patients, which results into supply and demand problems. This continues to hinder service delivery and realization of the Millennium Development Goals (M.D.G’s). The supply and demand of nurses is extremely critical to the health sector, and if unaddressed, will result in critical health implications in the U.S. Increased enrollment levels into nursing courses at various community levels will cumulatively reduce the problem of nursing shortage. Additionally, those communities which recognize and act on this knowledge will benefit sooner.
One of the root causes of the nursing shortage is low admission and enrollment into the nursing discipline. The education sector is crucial to solving the nursing problem yet 23% of nurse educators are expected to retire by 2020 (Little et al., 2012). A huge number is needed to fill the emerging vacuum while at the same time requiring a large number to fill the already acute shortage.
A.2 Participants
Nursing shortages are perceived as a shortage of skilled nurses who take care of the individual patients and the entire population in the U.S. The definition is based on country’s staffing levels, resources and healthcare service demands. The shortage is experienced in the form of number of nurses required to provide services to patients. When the numbers are inadequate, it becomes a crisis to the nursing administration. Absolute shortage is experienced when the skilled human resource is not available. On the other hand, relative shortage entails geographical location, inequitable distribution of skilled personnel, recruitment and staff retention challenges. Additionally, when the nurses are few in numbers, it becomes difficult to fill open positions and meet services demands (Buchan & Aiken, 2008).
B.1. Problem Outline
There has been a growing state and national nursing shortage in the U.S, which continues to pose a serious health risk in the healthcare system. The supply of educated nurses in the public health sector remains acute nationally. The U.S shall need 2, 824, 900 nurses by 2020, which is an increase of approximately 41%. The percentage of older or senior citizens aged 85 years is expected to rise from 3.5 to 7 million in 2020 (Littlejohn, et al, 2012). While they age, their health conditions become weaker as the decrease in nursing services becomes acute. The same challenge faces educational institutions involved in training nurses. The teaching staff wanes as the enrollment for nursing demands increases. Qualified students are turned away for lack of enough teaching staff. Of concern is the turnover rate that is ever increasing while universities grapple with staff retention. Nursing shortage therefore poses the greatest challenge to the U.S and addressing the problem has to start with the root causes. If no measures are taken, then a big nursing crisis looms in the entire U.S. The survey focuses on higher learning institutions and the effects that they lend to the shortage of nurses within the scope of this study. The paper’s intent is to establish communication to all stakeholders, nurses and nurse hopefuls. Additionally, it’s the paper evaluates the magnitude of the problem and provides recommendations to scholars, practitioners, policy makers and service providers.
Rationale of the Nursing Shortage Survey
The survey intends to provide critical information on nursing shortage that helps to explain its existence. The in-depth comprehension of the problem will identify crucial causal factors, which bring out the extent of the nursing problem to the practitioners and policy makers in the U.S. Furthermore, the survey presents the meaning of nursing shortage to decision makers that are necessary to set the pace for action. It attempts to examine various intervention strategies that are practiced in the U.S. It further attempts to probe and analyze the factors that should are needed in order to eliminate some elements of the nursing shortages in the U.S.
While research and scholarly works already exist on the nursing shortage, this survey in the nursing community in a local area should and will shed light on emerging trends. In addition, it should also shed light onto community educational institutions, scholars and policy implementers to improve the nursing situation in the country. It will also be useful to practitioners in the nursing field at various levels including administration, policy formulation and service provision in the education sector.
Purpose of this paper
The objective of this research paper is to elucidate the meaning of the nursing shortage in the healthcare sector. The focus of the survey is on healthcare personnel, hospital policy makers, practitioners, administrators, students, nurses, and former nurses who have moved into other fields. Implications within the scope of the survey should also prompt those involved in nursing community to further question how to handle low enrollment and salaries, high turnover rates, nursing discipline and staff retention strategies. By examining nursing shortage at different levels, the paper targets to address the many root causes of the shortage. Based on the fact that the nursing shortage is a universal crisis, it seeks to be part of the solution to existing problems and challenges.
An additional purpose of this survey is to elucidate that increased enrollment into nursing courses by communities will cumulatively reduce the nursing shortage problem. The survey will bring forth evidence that help to display the magnitude of the nursing shortage. It will also show statistical data that will expose many of the barriers that the polled participants have witnessed or experienced in attempting to enroll or who have enrolled for nursing courses.
Additionally, it will produce results which are indicative of the increased need to start addressing the problem. Furthermore, it will show whether there are indications in the numbers of the latest trends that represent declining numbers of rejections. The purpose of the survey will also re-examine ratios and barriers such as student-to-teacher, course completion, content difficulty, skill acquisition, job satisfaction and other formally suggested evidence of earlier and similar studies. The results and data of the survey will support additional increased needs for further solutions to the problem identified in the study.
B.2 Problem description – possible causes
Research by the international council of nurses, in the year 2004, reveals that the shortage of nurses and healthcare professionals is one of the main obstacles hindering the achievement of the United Nation’s Millennium Development goals. Among the eight-millennium development goals, numbers 4, 5 and 6 concern health. World nations cannot achieve these goals if the increasing trend in the healthcare sector is not reversed. In the U.S, nursing profession forms 83% of workforce and a total population of 2.7 million nurses (Nursing, 2000). Trends show that nursing workforce was diminishing significantly and drastically (Nursing, 2000). According to the survey, nurses formed the largest part of hospital staff and it provided for the majority of primary care (Nursing, 2000). It was notable that critical care nurses are too few; they work in intensive care units, pediatric care units, cardiac catheter labs, telemetry units, progressive care units and recovery units (Nursing, 2000).
Olson writes that nursing shortage and measurement takes place in relation to the countries staffing levels, resources, and approximations of demand for the healthcare services. This means that it is not easy to quantify the concept of the nursing shortage, and other definitions may base on the concept of the standards of professional capacity, and/or from the economic perception. These perspectives imply that there are differences in the definition and determination of nursing shortages from country to country.
Today, the healthcare sector has an acute decrease in the supply of healthcare providers and an increase in demand for healthcare services. There are many causes of this situation, including increased demand, decreased supply, shrinkage in the pool of applicants, unfavorable working conditions, and the aging workforce without replacement (Olson, 2012). An attempt by the department of health and human services endeavored to identify registered nurses in March 2004. It was found that the figure stood at 503,124 nurses in the U.S (nurses involved in critical care stood at 37% of the workforce at the hospital setting) (Nursing, 2000). The critical care nurses comprised of clinicians, educators, researchers, managers, nurse specialists and practitioners (Nursing, 2000). In a research conducted by the Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 84 percent of the respondents felt that there is nurses shortage; 45 percent of the respondents felt the problem was acute and 39 percent felt it was moderate (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001).
Eighty six percent of former nurses felt that nursing shortage existed while 48 percent felt the problem was severe and 38 percent felt it was moderate; 10 percent felt there was no change (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001). The problem was attributed to retention and recruitment as the main cause. Those nurses that were less experienced or worked for less than ten years were more likely to leave the nursing profession. The survey also indicated those current nurses’ intentions to leave and attitudes regarding their continued work in a direct patient care setting were likely to contribute to nursing shortage. According to the survey conducted in 2001, both current and older or former nurses who were likely to leave the profession formed 50%. Those who had spent less than years in the profession were considering leaving patient care (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001).
Causes of the nursing shortage
The field of nursing faces numerous shortages due to various causal reasons and aspects. Some of the shortages accrue from the following reasons:
First, people who would have gone into the nursing profession are opting for other alternative professions. Opportunities in the workforce have opened up for young women, coupled with the fact that there are additional stresses to the nursing profession (Buchan & Linda, 2006). People have begun weighing their professional interests with career choices that have better capacity to re-compensate and improve the quality of their lives.
On the contrary, the field of nursing is acutely falling short of the many desired qualities and is driving women to pursue competitive, lucrative, and attractive careers that women could not achieve in the last thirty years. The fields of law, medicine, and corporate world have opened avenues through which women can pursue careers; hence neglecting nursing, which was initially the favorite for women. This trend has led to a severe deficiency of nurses in the field of healthcare, and the trend looks like it is going up at a high rate.
The US Congress (2002) observes that another reason why the field of nursing is sharply falling short of professionals is that training institutions are declining in their enrollment of student trainees and educators. Admissions into the nursing colleges have declined over the recent years. This point is closely linked to the above point about women opting for other professions. On top of that, little has been done to attract men into the nursing profession.
Additionally, reports indicate that nursing universities and colleges have been denying qualified applicants opportunities due to the shortage of nursing trainers in the year 2005. To be exact, 32,617 students failed to enroll in nursing colleges due to the shortage of health educators (U.S Congress, 2002). Additionally, nursing educators are also finding more lucrative jobs in other fields, than educating nurses are. Therefore, there is the need for the United States to graduate more than 90 percent of the nurses getting into the nursing training (U.S Congress, 2002).
There is also the problem accruing from the issue of age. Young people are no longer interested in the nursing profession because of its difficulties. This has risen the average age of the practicing nurses, which lies between 46 and 56 across the United States of America. This implies that half of the registered nurses will reach their retirement age within the next 15 years, therefore, creating an acute shortage in the field. This trend has been on for the last thirty years, and its effect is already spreading across the world.
Inadequacy of funds for the health sectors in most countries has also been a principal cause of the shortage of nurses. The lack of enough funds hinders staffing of hospitals and other healthcare facilities. It also leads to the registered nurses getting low salaries and low, work privileges, which affects their living standards. This aspect influences nurses to opt for other lucrative professions (U.S Congress, 2002).
The dynamism in the field has contributed to poor working conditions, with some nurses describing the conditions as horrible (Daniels, 2012). To start with, the workload is incredulous. Increasing health issues have led to an increase in the nursing workload hence making it exhaustive. To make it worse, the extra work that nurses do is rarely compensated. Most nurses have even uttered that they do not see themselves retiring in the field of nursing; they would rather go for other jobs. Some of them have a feeling that there could be more that they could do for their patients, but the time available and the working conditions do not allow that to happen; this makes the field less favorable (Daniels, 2012).
Within the nursing work path, critical care specialties required certification and orientation of possible nurses. Some employers preferred to employ only certified nurses who had attained a specific level of knowledge and psychometrical job-related examinations even when the critical nursing skills could be attained through experience. To curb turnover effect, the nursing career can diversify in areas that allow nurses to make a variety of choices within their nursing career. For instance, hospital settings include recovery room, pediatrics, surgical, mental health, emergency, operating room and maternal childcare (AACC, 2010).
Another aspect captured by the AACC report showed that men were also entering the nursing profession and they formed 5.8% of the entire nursing workforce. Male entry into the nursing profession had changed perceptions and biases by the public towards the profession based on gender differences (AACC, 2010). Nursing was no longer a woman’s job (AACC, 2010). In the Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals survey, reasons for considering to leave by current nurses were to find a less stressful and physically demanding job (56% ); most respondents were twice more likely to have thought of leaving. Twenty-two percent considered leaving due to the lack of predictable work schedules, long hours and floating. Eighteen percent considered leaving for more pay or benefits. On the other hand, fourteen percent advanced there opportunities to raise children. What came out strongly was the fact that most of them wanted a job that was more predictable and regular. This would enable them to plan other life schedules unrelated to work. Furthermore, 53 percent wanted less physically demanding and stressful work. A close examination of workers’ intentions to leave revealed their biggest reason was that they are unsatisfied with their profession. Both current and former nurses in the critical care section had given a negative assessment for direction of the profession in future. Sixty nine percent of them said the overall situation facing nurses was getting worse or while 26 percent of them noted that, the situation has remained the same (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001).
B.3 Possible solutions
Making attempts to address these growing concerns are possible solutions. Another aspect indicated that low levels of morale among the registered nurses was at excellent/good (25%) or fair/poor (75%) while another 49% felt wrong choice of their profession was the cause of their predicaments (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001). Potential nursing leavers on the other hand had indicated that their overall situation about nursing was getting worse in their health facilities. Job conditions were also appraised to determine what caused low morale and the reasons included patient load (66%); acute care (65%); time with patients (64%); administrative tasks or paper work (60%); physical demands that were stressful (55%); time breaks or uncertainty with work schedule (51%); freedom or discretion in decision making (39%); floating (31%); delegation of duties (30%) and overtime (25%) (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001). Seventy seven percent of them felt that negative perceptions of patients on work (patient acuity) had increased (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001).
Another question put to them to determine major problems with direct care nursing indicated that understaffing (39%); physical demands (34%); lack of support by the administration in the nursing facility (22%), unpredictability of work schedule and long hours (15%); low pay benefits (14%) and few opportunities for job progression, are the principal problems (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001). Apart from the negative aspects, they were asked to state what things were good about their nursing profession. Some of the reasons were enjoying helping patients and their families (25%); interesting responsibilities (20%); working closely with people they like (15%); professional discretion to make decisions (10%); job progression (9%) and earning good salary (7%) (Federation of Nurses and Health Professionals, 2001).
Research objectives
The Research Hypothesis
Increased enrollment and certification opportunities created in higher learning institutions and its communities will cumulatively address nursing shortages at the community, state, and national levels. The survey investigates nursing education and staffing trends at community, state, and national levels and shows a link how these directly influence the nursing shortage.
Operationalization of Terms
In this simple designed descriptive study, data will be collected from different groups within or those supportive by job description of the nursing community. The selected participants will all have the variable of being affiliated with and knowledgeable of scope of nursing in one or more ways. The participants will all submit to volunteer status and will receive no compensation for their participation.
The dependent variable is increased enrollment of students for nursing studies. This will be measured by an expected increase or decrease of nursing professionals. The oscillation between increases and decreases can easily be monitored. The dependent variable is nursing shortages, which relies on admissions or increased enrollment. An increase in admissions reduces the shortage while a decrease in admissions increases the shortage.
– Research Questions
– What is your level of involvement in the nursing community?
– Have you witnessed or experienced conditions in your line of work that have caused deterioration or a contribution to turnover?
– What is the magnitude or extent of nursing shortage in your workplace?
– How long have you been in a working relationship with the nursing community?
– What is the likely effect of increased enrollment into nursing course?
– Do you remember having special difficulty as you attempted to enroll in nursing programs
– How many nursing schools have turned you down initially or for advanced practice nursing?
– How far outside your community did you have to travel to pursue nursing education?
– Does your employer encourage of offer advance nursing education opportunities in your present job description?
– Do you experience value at your work place?
– Is your line of work either supportive of nursing or do you actually do the job?
– What age category would you describe yourself as?
– Which level of nursing would you describe yourself in?
– Do you participate in decision making policy governing nursing education, employment or training at your workplace?
– What is the closest category of your age?
– What most closely describes your ethnicity?
– How long was your training for the level of nursing that you have accomplished?
– Are you support personnel, administrator or policy maker of nursing activities?
– What level of administration do you participate in concerning nursing policy?
Description of the problem specific to the discipline of nursing
Nursing in the U.S is among the largest healthcare professions (Nursing, 2000). The investigation goes further than hospital setting to nurse training at health institutions. The study evaluates how enrollment is done and why the supply and demand needs exist. The nursing profession requires knowledge, compassion and care. A review of total enrollment into nursing programs indicates that there is a gradual rise in admissions. According to AACC, total enrollment in the U.S leading to baccalaureate degree stood at 201407 in 2010 (AACC, 2010). University admissions records show that student enrollment into nursing which form the basis of the universe population for this study. This study evaluates student enrollment, successful applications and course completion. Student population will be evaluated to find out emerging trends. The teaching staff turnover is quite high and the survey intends to bring to light the issues and ventilate on the causes.
D.1 Data -Justification for the research method
The descriptive simple design is utilized within the study. It lends itself to a collection of information from a population of people that have similar or generalized characteristics but also share some commonality which are relative to nursing. In my population, I will solicit members of a community of healthcare related participants who have had experiences within the education of nurses and their professional service. In this simple descriptive study, data will be collected from different groups within the nursing community. They all will have the variable of being affiliated within the scope of nursing in one or more ways. The participants will all submit to volunteer status and will receive no compensation for their participation.
The dependent variable is increased enrollment of students for nursing. This will be measured by increase or decrease of nurses. The oscillation between increases and decreases can easily be monitored. The dependent variable is the nursing shortage, which relies on admissions or increased enrollment. An increase in admissions reduces the shortage while a decrease in admissions increases the shortage.
The characteristics can be as simple as nursing students up to the policy makers who understand the complexities associated with nursing education or the practice of nursing. Simple sampling survey method has been adopted because there is scanty information in the university on enrollment into nursing course trends implications. This survey will elucidate on enrollment status and trends. The study adopts a simple descriptive designed survey design where simple sampling is used to collect data that contributes to the understanding of nursing shortage problem.The study will use a simple survey to achieve maximum understanding of the problem and provide the solutions. Triangulation will base on primary data collected from interviews, observations and secondary sources. Observation, qualitative, quantitative and secondary methods and sources of data will be crucial to the study.
Researcher Roles and Potential Biases
The researcher has the obligation to ensure that desired objective outcomes are met while conducting the research. This implies that the research auditor will have to conduct or monitor how the interviews are conducted in an objective, reliable and defensible manner. That implies observing research protocol as respondent confidentiality, communication of research intentions and assurance of sharing results at completion of study. The research sampling method has weaknesses that are likely to affect desired outcomes. Research interviewer’s internal bias is likely to blur the intended way questions should be asked or intended meanings of the respondents while taking note; there are also respondent’s social desirability and researcher type stereotypes (Miyazaki & Taylor, 2008).
On the other hand, research respondents are likely to base their responses on researcher tendency to ask leading questions. While conducting the study, the researcher should only role as the moderator, experimenter, and facilitation to avoid introduction of systemic researcher biases (Miyazaki & Taylor, 2008). Besides, research questions touching on attitudes and values may result into interaction biases. Sometimes the physical appearances of the survey or even the researcher may cause interaction biases in respondents. Additionally, individual personality traits are likely to cause interaction biases. Another aspect is gender bias; females were more flexible, and open to follow women than with men. Likewise, males formed different expectations depending on the gender of the surveyor or interviewer. Finally, racial and ethnic differences affected in a substantial way the behavior and attitudes of the respondents (McDonald &Kan, 1997).
The researcher may even experience similar biases in the field. Cultural perceptions influenced the interpretation of questions to the respondent, which produced different responses. The mode of dressing in one instance affected respondents’ behavior and comfort to discuss on particular issues. The researcher had to dress according to the setting of the respondent. For nursing students, it was appropriate to dress like them. Another challenge was communication where the researcher’s listening skills were poor and left out important information from the respondent.
D.2. Instruments and Methods
Sampling Technique
The simple design survey used random sampling from a group of participants who had similar characteristics, but also contained diverse characteristics as well. The random sampling from within this diverse convenience sample, introduced probability into the study, and therefore achieved a more representative sample from within the original convenience sample (Houser, 2008). This added the element of mixture. Mixtures of characteristics within survey samples often add more dimensions to the evidence based information from the populations studied. In turn, mixture evokes probability in which clusters of information in a study are found to have links in one or more ways.

The Structure of an Essay

The Structure of an Essay

Writing an essay is one of the most critical academic aspects you’re going to find. Most instructors (at any level) want you to be able to communicate your thoughts effectively. Therefore, the structure of an essay is just as important as the wording and grammar you use.

Though many people think so, writing essays isn’t just a hoop that you must get through to complete schooling. Many professors write essays throughout their lifetime and want students to do the same.

However, planning ahead is essential, so you need to give care and thought to the process. Of course, you also have to know the structure of an essay to ensure that you’re writing it correctly.

What Is the structure of an Essay?

Generally, an essay is a formal argument that you are trying to make to anyone who reads your words. It must be supported by evidence or logic, and often both. Each essay needs to have an intro, body, and conclusion. Of course, you can have subtopics and endless points to meet the word count and prove your point within the body.

The Introduction for

the structure of an Essay

Each paragraph and sentence you write are important, but the introduction might be vital here. It has to be near perfect so that people want to continue reading what you’ve written and learned from your research.

This is the point where you can make an excellent first impression. Instructors are likely to start grading from the moment they begin reading. They look at whether it’s interesting or dull, strong or weak, ineffective or effective. Usually, they come to their conclusion before they finish the intro.

It must tell the reader what the topic is and your stance on it. You can touch on some of the main points and provide an overview of your particular argument. Also, it’s important to show your thought process and that it’s coherent and logical.

The Body

Your essay must also have a body, and this is going to be the longest part of the entire piece. Even short essays have three or more full paragraphs, though a long essay can span many pages.

Each paragraph should be a point within your argument, relating to the topic. These paragraphs also have a structure. You can label them as topics within if you need to write multiple paragraphs to prove one point. It requires a signpost sentence, which dictates what you plan to talk about during that paragraph or section. The rest of the sentences expand on that point and back it up with appropriate examples.

The Conclusion

At the end of your essay, you need to sum everything up with a conclusion. Often, a single paragraph is enough, but it might take three or four in a longer discussion.

The conclusion’s goal is to summarize all of the main points in the argument and draw the final decision if relevant. Sometimes, you can even include other informational content to further the study.

Now isn’t the time to talk about new ideas about the topic. This is just the reminder of what you’ve already covered here.

How Do You Start?

Knowing the structure of an essay isn’t all. You’ve still got to begin writing it. For some, there’s no problem with this part, but others need to use a physical outline to help them stay on track.

Some professors recommend writing the body first because it can help you map out the main ideas. Then, you can write the introduction around the points you’ve already covered, as well as the conclusion.

If you’re having trouble, it’s always possible to seek help from the best writers online. Ask questions and get help writing your essays so that they sound great and help you get a better grade.